Chapter 15, Emancipation

The Jiva obtains emancipation by worshipping God in the manner mentioned above, removing nescience and sinful acts, and by developing pure knowledge and righteous conduct.

Yoga aphorisms on emancipation.

‘Nescience, egoism, attachment, aversion and fear of death are the five afflictions.

  • Nescience is the field (i.e., the birth-place0 of those that follow it (in the above enumeration) whether they be dormant, dwarfed, neutralized for the time being by another affliction, or active.’

‘Nescience is to take the non-eternal as eternal, the impure as pure, pain as pleasure and not-self as self.’

‘Egoism is the identification of the seer and the power of seeing.’

‘Attachment is the attraction towards a pleasure which one has once experienced.’

‘Aversion is the repulsion from a pain which one has once experienced.’

‘Flowing by its own potency and established even in the learned is the fear of death.’ Yoga I.2.3 -9.

‘From the disappearance of that i.e., Nescience, results the disappearance of the conjunction (of the seer and the seen) and then results Absolute Freedom.’ I.2.25.

‘Absolute freedom results also from the non-attachment to the Siddhis (perfections) on

  • the destruction of the seeds of defects. I.3.48.

‘Absolute freedom results when the purity of the Satwa (intellect) is equal to the purity of the purusha.’ I.3.53.

‘Then the thinking principle leans towards discrimination and moves towards absolute freedom.’ I.4.53.

‘Then the thinking principle leans towards absolute freedom.’ I.4.26.

‘Absolute freedom results when the qualities, becoming devoid of the objects of the purusha (i.e. the attainment of fruits) cease to be born and the power of consciousness is established in its own nature. I.4. 34.

Nyaya Aphorism on Emancipation.

Emancipation results when among pain, birth, worldly activities, defects and false knowledge, the destruction of that which follows leads to the destruction of that which precedes.’ The characteristic of pain is that it is painful. ‘Emancipation is complete freedom from pain’ Nyaya. I.1.2 and 21, 23.

Vedanta Texts.

“Badari says: “There is absence (of the body in the state of emancipation) because it is so (declared by the Scripture)’; ‘Jaimini says: “There

  • is presence (of the body) because it is declared that an emancipated soul can optionally assume a body.’ ‘Therefore, the son of Badari says there are both (presence and absence of body) as in the twelve days’ yajna (prescribed for a Vanaprastha) hunger is present as well as absent, because the performer of the yajna is not allowed to have full meals and hence it cannot be said that he is hungry, nor that he is not hungry. Nyaya IV.4.10,11,12.

“They call that the highest state in which the five senses of cognition together with the mind stand still and the intellect goes not act perversely.’

‘They believe that the firm holding of the senses is yoga. Then (in yoga) he (yogi) becomes free from carelessness. Yoga comes into existence and goes out of it (i.e., it brings into light the good and destroys the bad qualities).’

‘When all the desires residing i his heart are destroyed then the mortal becomes immortal and enjoys (the presence of) Brahma.’

“When all the ties of his heart are here cut asunder, the mortal becomes immortal

  • This much is the teaching.’ Katha. VI 10,11,14 & 15.

‘He (the emancipated soul) seeing these pleasures with the divine eye, i.e., the mind, rejoices.’

The Jivas who are in the world of Brahman (i.e., state of emancipation) hold communion with that Self. Therefore, all worlds belong to them and all desires. He, who knows that Self and understands it, obtains all worlds and all desires. So said Prajapaati; so said Prajapati

‘He is the pervader. He is Brahman, Heis immortal and he indwelling soul (of all). (The emancipated soul longs) ‘May I enter the assembly hall ofPrajapati, may I become glory, glory of the Brahmanas, glory of the Kshatriyas, glory of the Vaishyas and the glory of glory itself’ Chhandogya. VIII.

‘The path (to salvation) is narrow and ancient. It is a bridge (for crossing the river of life and death). It has been reached and found by me.’ The wise, who know Brahman, after their release from here, cross over to the world

  • of joy and even to regions beyond it by that (path).’

‘On that, they say, there is white, blue, yellow, green and red. This path was found by Brahma. By it goes he, who knows Brahman, who is the doer of good (deeds), and who is full of splendor.’

‘They who knew the He (Brahma) is the life of the life, the eye of the eye, the ear of the ear, the food of the food, the mind of the mind, reached the ancient, primeval Brahma who can be known through the mind only.’

‘There is no diversity in Him.’ ‘He who perceives any diversity in Him goes from death to death. This eternal (being), who cannot be apprehended (otherwise than) through the mind is free from impurity, subtler than Akasha (ether), the unborn, the pervader, great and eternal. Let a wise Brahmana practice wisdom after knowing Him. Shatapatha VIV.7.

‘He (Yajnavalkya) said; ‘O Gargi, this is the Imperishable, whom the Brahmana describe as one who is neither gross, nor subtle, nor short, nor long, nor red, nor fluid. He is

  • without shadow, without darkness, without air, without ether, without attachment, without touch, without smell, without taste, without eyes, without ears, without speech, without mind, without light, without breath, without mouth, without name, without partronymic, without old age, without death, without fear.

He is immoral, without impurity, without word, having no within, no without. There is nothing that was before Him, he is neither that shall be after Him. He is neither open nor closed. He eats no one and no one eats Him.’ Shatapatha XIV. 6.

The Jiva can become happy for ever by attaining to the Supreme Brahman, who is attainable by the emancipated, who is emancipation itself and whose attributes are all-consciousness, all-existence and all-bliss.

Vedic Texts.

The emancipated souls live in the bliss of emancipation, performing the Yajna of knowledge and surrendering their selves, etc., to God by way of the fee of that yajna. All the joys are meant for them who by the friendship

  • of God have obtained emancipation. Their Pranas help in the full development of their intellects. The other emancipated souls who have obtained emancipation previous to them admit them into their blissful society and then all of them associate together and see them with loving eyes of knowledge.’ Rigveda. VIII. 2.1.

‘God is our brother, i.e., the destroyer of our afflictions, the generator of all happiness, our protector. He is the fulfiller of all under takings and the knower of all worlds. In Him do the learned live in bliss after obtaining emancipation and dwelling in the third place, i.e., the highest bliss, they ever roam in it freely, accompanied with pure intellect.” Yaju XXXII. 10.

  • The texts beginning with Yoga I. 2-3 and
  • ending with Yaju XXXII 10 describe the
  • state of emancipation. They have been explained in the vernacular.*

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