Category Archives: Great Aryas

The Works of Pandit Gurudutt Vidyarthi – A Book Review of “The Terminology of the Vedas” – Vinita Arya

 

Introduction

Pandit Gurudutt Vidyarthi’s works which were first collated, edited and published posthumously in 1897 by his close friend and associate Lala Jivan Das are truly an homage to a person who he calls “one of those rare geniuses of whom any civilized country may justly be proud”.

These works, the fruit of his twenty six years of toil and labour on this earth, are a testament to a life in which “his body, mind and wealth were all at the service of the Arya Dharma and his only occupation was the discovery and the elucidation of Vedic truths”.

The biographical details of his life have been recounted on numerous occasions in different arenas, (a very good summary of his life can be found on this website at http://aryamantavya.in/pandit-gurudatta-great-gem-arya-samaj/  and http://aryamantavya.in/pandit-gurudutt/ ) however what has not been surprisingly brought often to the attention of the uninitiated reading public, are the actual profound, Vedic universal truths that dealt “a death blow to … (Pandit ji’s) old cherished sceptic ideas” and which also shook the false superiority of many self-proclaimed European scholars of Sanskrit and the Vedas of his time.

As these truths are eternal and universal in their application they are as relevant today as they were in the late nineteenth century. This is because the very purpose of the Ved is to explain science, the spiritual and the material, and its proper application in all fields of human existence. This understanding of Vedic science is very necessary if we, the torchbearers of Vedic Dharma’s universal civilisation are always to be at the forefront of our current incredibly fast-moving human development.

Pandit ji being a brilliant scientist as well as a master Sanskrit scholar wished through his works to inform his readers of the right tools needed to interpret and understand these eternal truths. If used correctly by the sincere and ardent devotee of Ishvar these tools could enable him or her to obtain all forms of material, spiritual riches and the greatest prize of all mukti, liberation from birth and death.

In the first of a series of articles, starting with an analysis of his book, The Terminology of the Vedas an attempt will be made to give a summary of some of the countless pearls of wisdom that can be found in The Works of the Late Pandit Guru Datta Vidyarthi, M.A (the pdf version of the 1902 edition published can be found at the end of this piece). These summaries and analyses have been undertaken with the sincere hope of inspiring the modern day reader to delve more deeply into Pandit ji’s actual works and to find for him or herself the right tools needed for the proper interpretation of the Vedas.

Once properly understood it is hoped that the ordinary lay reader will be inspired to study the Vedas and Sanskrit for the purpose of obtaining Ishvar realisation and for obtaining the necessary ammunition needed to fight those destructive pseudo-intellectual forces which seek to misguide the human race from understanding the true universal message of the Vedas.

The Terminology of the Vedas – A Summary

Before we go on to the actual examination of these different methods word must be had about the inspiration behind Pandit ji’s methodology.

In the beginning of this work he dedicates it to the memory of “The Only Vedic Scholar of his time – Swami Dayananda Saraswati”. The use of the word “only” and “of his time” is not only a rebuff to the many puffed up European scholars of his time who claimed that Sanskrit and Vedic literature was their sole domain, but is also in clear denunciation of those indigenous scholars who Swami ji himself believed were the main cause behind the degradation of Indian society due to their deliberate misinterpretation of the Vedas for their own selfish gain.

There can be no doubt that Pandit ji is no ordinary disciple of Swami Dayanand, as he describes himself on the first page of his book (see page 56 of the pdf) as being a “sincere” and a “devoted admirer” of his. From this introduction by the author himself one can therefore expect the ensuing analysis to be like that of his mentor – deep and uncompromising when it comes to the correct interpretation of the Vedas.

Turning to the “The Terminology of the Vedas” (see page 57 of the pdf) he starts his analysis by stating generally that “the question of the origin, nature and eternity of shabda – human articulate and inspired speech has been a very important question in Sanskrit literature”. In his view while it has been the cause of much wrangling in modern times, (i.e. in the nineteenth century) for students of onomatopoeia and other such artificial theories of speech it has also been a question that has been discussed by ancient commentators such as the Nairuktikas, Vyakaranis, even “the disciple of the learned Vyasa the founder of one of the six schools of philosophy, the religious aphorist, Jaimini” in his Mimansa.

Due to the many incorrect preconceived notions hindering the proper interpretation of Vedic terminology it has become necessary he says to carefully examine, study and prune such notions of all irrelevant matter liable to produce error, while at the same time seeking “rational methods” which may throw light on the subject. He reveals that the three methods of interpreting the Vedas are firstly the mythological method, secondly the antiquarian method and lastly the contemporary method and he proceeds to examine the validity of each method in turn.

The mythological method, which is still used widely today by Western Indologists following in the footsteps of earlier Western Sanskrit scholars, views the “Vedas as myths”, “an embodiment of simple natural truths in the imaginative language of religious fiction. This approach maintains that at the time of the Vedas there was a comparatively rude and simple stage of human life and experience”.    From this primitive savage state the ideas of God and religion gradually evolved. Primitive man being unable to fathom higher truths used “analogy” to work out that motions like the “wind blowing, the fire burning, a stone falling, or a fruit dropping” is due to the “will” of a supra human being, who once intellectually personified in a form then becomes a “god” by virtue of that primitive savage feeling an overwhelming “sense of his own weakness, humility and inferiority”.

According to this mythological approach the Vedas are then “prayers from such an emotional character addressed to the forces of nature” and are “hymns simply portraying the simple phenomena of nature in the personified language of mythology”. While Pandit ji acknowledges that the human intellect is “analogous”, i.e. makes analogies as part of a natural process of thinking and that it along with the process of mythification are universal, existing everywhere throughout the world, his study of deductive psychology, comparative philology and comparative mythology leads him to the conclusion that “the growth of mythology is deductively informed from the same psychological data”, that is to say that “mythologies as well as mythic practices … arise … either as products of human imagination, working under subdued intellect and petrified reason or as an outgrowth of a distorted remnant of a purer and truer form of religion”.

In emphasising his point he refers to the work of the English Orientalist Edward Pococke – India in Greece or Truth in Mythology, in which geographical names from the Greek civilization are shown to originate from names derived from Sanskrit Indian names. From this study he deduces that “it can be informed that Greece was once colonized by Indians “and furthermore that this was also the case with the “identity of several systems of mythologies and language”. This all leads him to a general conclusion that there is a “uniformity of human nature” that can be derived from mythology.

The uniformity of human nature however is the only actual truth which Pandit ji derives from the occidental mythological method approach to interpreting the Vedas. However the rest of the method’s “specific mythological and philological facts have no independent value” in his estimation.  This is because they have “no distinct individualized influence on the terminology of the Vedas”.  The greatest inherent drawback of the mythological method he finds is that “it is the symbolization of human thought in the concrete” whereas, the Vedas being books of philosophy and not mythology are in reality expressed in the “abstract … general terms and in ultimate formula”. Unlike mythology, the Vedas has “for its object the elucidation of ultimate truths or laws” which can also be found in the six schools of Indian philosophy, the Darshans and the Upanishads which have both been “substantially drawn out and evolved or developed” from the Vedas. These books of philosophy which are so close to the Vedas, precede the Puranas, he emphasises, the Puranas being the embodiment of the mythological literature of India.   For this reason, he is at pains to add “no stretch of artificial reasoning can make them (the Vedas) coincide with the Puranic period”.  Moreover any attempt to split up the Vedas into different epochs rendering some portions mythological and others philosophical is evidence he says of the inherent insufficiency of the mythological method as “no one mythological method is capable of interpreting the whole of the Vedas” which proves that the mythological method’s “partial character ….renders it insufficient”.

Before moving on to the next method, Pandit ji neatly summarises his position on the mythological method in this way;  the mythological method  when considered independently “proves insufficient, considered in conjunction with philology it fares no better and lastly it fails in contrast with the philosophical character of the Vedas”.

Having dismissed the mythological method as being the wrong method for interpreting the Vedas, he introduces and then rapidly destroys the next method beloved of Western Sanskrit scholars, the antiquarian or the historical method. This method involves the interpretation of books and the general literature of the period to which ancient literary records belong. How successful this approach is in correctly interpreting the Vedas depends on he believes firstly the interpreter’s choice of records concerning the event or events of the period which can be relied on, and secondly and most importantly “the faithfulness of our interpretation of the records”. While Pandit ji admits that this method has its merits, he says that “its excellence … lies in the fact that it renders our interpretation of past records less liable to error” and moreover he commends it for acknowledging that “all living languages are daily undergoing changes which accumulate and appear after a sufficiently long interval to have created very different cognate languages” he concludes however that it is wrong that the supporters of this method use it to interpret the Vedas.

He gives an example from the Roman Republic to illustrate this point. He asks the reader to think of the Forum, the main centre of a Roman city. Usually located near the physical center of a Roman town, the Forum in ancient Roman times served as a public area in which commercial, religious, economic, political, legal, and social activities occurred. In this bygone era when the public press and all kinds of media known to Pandit ji and us were unheard of, “the Forum was the only place of resort of all audience, and oratory had a totally different meaning from that of modern times, the Senate signified a different institution from what it now is; Republic or democracy of the people – then existing was what would be to us something like an oligarchy, though very different from it in many essential features”. If this is the case he challenges the validity of adopting the antiquarian method in analysing the Roman Forum of more than two thousand years ago as the researcher’s current understanding of the words Democracy, Republic and the like left unguided “would be inconsistent with itself” as “the medley of two epochs would be such that a critical examination … (could only) be termed as sheer nonsense”.

His criticism of the meddling of two epochs leading to inaccurate interpretations is also seen during his explanation of the final method of interpretation; the contemporary method. Here he criticizes Western Sanskrit scholars using the antiquarian method for fruitlessly trying “to fix dates of these writings by searching in them, in most cases in vain, for any well-established consistent historical facts” for lack of them possessing “the knowledge of (the) historical evolution of Sanskrit literature”. These so called scholars he maintains fail to grasp or deliberately ignore the fact that the “Sanskrit of the Puranas is so different from the Sanskrit of the Mahabharata and that of the Darshanas, which again is different from that of the Upanishads”. In his view there is “a clear line of demarcation” that can be “easily laid down between all types of literature ….” that show very clearly that “one cannot be confounded with the other”.

He criticises without referring to them by name “very well known (but not necessarily very good) professors of Sanskrit” for not applying the contemporary method at all or to have done so, so loosely and carelessly that the modern interpretations of the Vedas by them are rendered “simply unintelligible and absurd”. He goes on to lament that these “learned” professors’ works on the Vedas which are standard study texts even today for students of Sanskrit and Hinduism have derived “their inspiration from commentaries on the Vedas by Mahidhara, Ravana and Sayana” who he underlines were “writers of a period decidedly very much later than that of the Vedas and only well coinciding with our own time”. Evidence of the unbiased nature of Pandit ji’s criticism can be seen here in that despite these commentators being Indian he bluntly calls them “as ignorant of the terminology of the Vedas as we are” and with reference to his previous example of the Forum of the Roman Republic he states that their interpretation of the Vedas according to the meanings existing in their own time “were as wrong as would be the words like democracy in our studies concerning ancient Rome”. Like a strict schoolmaster Pandit ji chides these errant professors for forgetting the “invaluable maxim – the nearer we approximate to the literature of the period to which the Vedas belongs the greater would be our chances of the interpretations being more probable and more correct”.

An example of the “worst” of such authorities, regarded ironically by Western Sanskrit scholars as being among the best, is Theodore Goldstücker. This German Sanskrit scholar who had worked in his lifetime on HH Wilson’s Sanskrit dictionary believed that “no writings of a date anterior to five or six thousand years before Christ seem to have existed” and by saying so Goldstücker was more or less in keeping with the “modern recognized chronology” inspired by the Christian church and its missionaries, a chronology which was in turn successfully imposed on Indian students by professors like Goldstücker.  Pandit ji who was well aware of the Vedic belief in cyclical eternity, (the concept which states that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space) derides such a notion. He refers to Goldstücker’s belief and that of his ilk that “the whole world seems to have been circumscribed within 8,000 years” as meaning quite ridiculously that “the whole region of intellectual activity of man seems to have been focused on the 6,000 years before Christ”. Here Pandit ji mocks this assertion because it contradicts the teachings of Christian missionaries who preach that the enlightenment of the world only occurred with the advent of Christ just over two thousand years ago!

His criticism of Christianity’s meagre chronology for a universe which is in fact in this creation over a billion years old is backed up by references to “the Shatapatha and the Nirukta which are confessedly books of a much anterior date” and therefore far older than “the commentaries of Sayana, Ravana and Mahidhara”.  He categorically states contrary to the prevailing opinion of his time that “we should resort to them and the Upanishads than to the times of the Puranas, of Ravana and of Mahidhara for the interpretation of the Vedas”.

By turning one’s back on the Puranas, and no longer holding it as “the authority on interpreting the Vedas” Pandit ji maintains one can truly then understand that the “Upanishads inculcate monotheism”, the worship of One God as explained in the Vedas. Moreover because in the Upanishads or the Shatapatha there are no references to “Indra, Mitra and Varuna signifying the deities” one should view the God of the Vedas, the Darshans and the Upanishads to be only the Deity, the One and only true God.

It is a travesty he writes that despite the Nirukta laying down “explicit rules on the terminology of the Vedas” such rules to the great detriment of the correct preaching of the Vedas, have gone “quite unheeded by modern professors”. For the benefit of these pseudo-intellectual professors, Pandit ji explains in brief the rules concerning this in the Niruktakara. “In the very beginning of the book … the terms used in the Vedas are Yaugika” he says. He explains that the term yaugika refer to those words which possess derived meaning. He contrasts this then with what words from the Vedas are not – rurhis. Rurhis are those words which have conventional, arbitrary or concrete meanings.

He elaborates on this by further explaining that “a Yaugika word is one that has derivative meaning” i.e. which derives its meaning from its root. The word is “all connotation”, which means that an idea or feeling is invoked from that word, from the literal or primary meaning of its root and it is this connotation which determines its denotation. A rurhi word in contrast again to a yaugika word has no connotative meaning “it is the name of a definite concrete object” and is determined by “an arbitrary principle” which means that its meaning is chosen at random, on a whim.

Why words in the Vedas are interpreted in a yaugika way he explains is because the process of arriving at an ultimate form of the word is a very rich and complete one. “It embodies the whole history of the intellectual activity of men”. The process involves generalisation, the usage of a person’s senses of taste, touch, smell etc. in investigating the objects’ properties. Secondly the sense impressions derived from this part of the process are compared with the sense impressions “already retained in our minds and constituting our past knowledge”. From this comparative study, the similarities which we detect between the two types of sense impressions should give us a “general or generic conception”. Thirdly “to this generic conception we give an appropriate name by synthetically arriving at it from a root”, which means using affixes rather than separate words to express the syntactic relationship with the root.

The process of arriving at a rurhi word is different. There is no generalisation as is the case with the process of arriving at a yaugik word. There is no need for synthesis, no need to add affixes. Words are separate and objects and classes of objects are roughly distinguished in this process by assigning a name randomly to it. It is not a process which requires much in terms of intellectual thought as Pandit ji explains as “here we only discriminatively specify the object we are naming without coming into general contact with it”.

This very clear demarcation between yaugika and rurhi words doesn’t exist with regards to a third class of words which can be interpreted. This class of words is called yoga-rurhi and here two words are synthetically combined into a compound denoting a third object by virtue of the combining of these two words. The relation or the interaction of phenomena are expressed in the resulting words that are created. Pandit ji gives the example here of the word kamala. “The word stands … in relation of the born to mud, the bearer, which leads the word kamala to be called pankaja as panka means mud and ja means to bear”.

In order to prove that his three-fold classification of words are based on solid authorities he quotes first Rishi Patanjali who states in the first aphorism of chapter 3, section 3 of his Mahabhashya – Nama cha dhatujamah Nirukte Vyakarane Shakatasya cha tokam. Naigam rurhi bhavam hi susadhu – which he translates to mean that “etymologically speaking there are three classes of words, the yaugika, the rurhi and the yoga-rurhi”. While some grammarians like Yaska and Shakatayana believe that all words are derived from dhatus, in other words that all words are yaugikas and yoga-rurhis, there are others like Panini who believe them to be rurhis also. But what Pandit ji is keen to explain here is that despite this difference there is unity of thought among “all the Rishis and Munis, ancient authors and commentators” who without exception regard the “Vedic terms as being yaugikas and yoga-rurhis only. Rurhis are only words which are laukika” or non-Vedic.

Towards the end of his explanation of the terminology of the Vedas Pandit ji states emphatically that “the Vedic writers of older epochs do not agree with those of modern times” so he asserts “it is strange to find our modern professors of Sanskrit, well-versed philologists and professed antiquarians so forcibly asserting the value of the antiquarian method “ which unsurprisingly leads them to create such blunders as “finding mythological data in the Vedas or of having come across the facts of a ruder bronze age or golden age in that book of “barbaric hymns”.

Here Pandit ji’s use of the words “our modern professors” is quite telling as at the time of writing and the first publication of this work, the British educational system, and its theorists including the kind of Sanskrit scholars described in this piece had come to monopolise and dictate the study of Sanskrit and the Vedas in the educational mainstream of Indian society. One can sense in this last paragraph by his usage of irony when referring to the discovery by Western scholars of hitherto unknown myths, bronze and golden ages that the young Pandit Gurudutt Vidyarthi is both frustrated and deeply hurt by their misinterpretation of the Vedas, as being mere “barbaric hymns” in stark contrast to their more civilized and sophisticated Bible. His hurt can be understood especially since he himself had in his short life studied Sanskrit and the Vedas very intensely and had accomplished the rare feat of grasping the authentic rules of interpretation from the ancient commentators and from Swami Dayananda himself. He for this reason, keenly felt the despair of his recently departed mentor who in his Satyarth Prakash had lamented that he had come to learn “from a letter of a principal of some German university, that even men learned enough to interpret a Sanskrit letter are rare in Germany”. Furthermore that Swami ji had “learnt from the study of Maxmuller‘s history of Sanskrit literature and his comments on some mantras of the Veda, that Professor Maxmuller has been able to scribble out something by the help of the so-called tikas or paraphrases of the Vedas current in India”. Here Swami ji is obviously referring to Maxmuller’s reliance on the more modern commentators of Ravana, Sayana and Mahidhara who Pandit ji confirms in his book as being “not at all at one “with the commentaries of “ancient scholars of not only the Nirukta, but Nighantu, Mahabhashya and Sangraha”.

Pandit Gurudutt Vidyathi’s book The Terminology of the Vedas in conclusion was and is a necessary work to expose the huge failings of Western and non-Western modern interpreters of the Vedas over the last four centuries. Its importance also lies in the fact that Pandit ji states the actual methods of interpretation sanctioned by scholarly authority which should be used by all serious scholars of the Vedas. The Terminology of the Vedas (see below) should then be studied to grasp the gist of such methods in preparation also for Pandit Gurudutt Vidyarthi’s second more deeper work which follows this (see page 67 of the pdf) – The Terminology of the Vedas and European Scholars in which Pandit ji proves with many examples the validity of Swami Dayanand’s belief about European scholars that “in a land where lofty trees never grow, even recinus communis or the castor oil plant may be called as oak”.

To download the book pls click on the link below:

Works of Pandit Gurudutta

 

रक्तसाक्षी पंडित लेखराम “आर्य मुसाफिर”

जन्म– आठ चैत्र विक्रम संवत् १९१५ को ग्राम सैदपुर जिला झेलम पश्चिमी पंजाब |
पिता का प.तारासिंह व माता का नाम भागभरी(भरे भाग्यवाली]) था | १८५० से १८६० ई. एक एक दशाब्दि में भारत मेंकई नर नामी वीर, जननायक नेता व विद्वान पैदा हुए | यहाँ ये बताना हमारा कर्त्तव्य है कि भारतीय स्वाधीनता संग्राम के हुतात्मा खुशीरामजी का जन्म भी सैदपुर में ही हुआ था | वे भी बड़े दृढ़ आर्यसमाजी थे | आर्यसमाज के विख्यात दानी लाला दीवानचंदजी इसी ग्राम में जन्मे थे | पण्डितजी के दादा का पं.नारायण सिंह था | आप महाराजा रणजीतसिंह की सेना के एक प्रसिद्द योध्या थे |
आर्यसमाज में पण्डितजी का स्थान बहुत ऊँचा है | धर्मरक्षा के लिए इस्लाम के नाम पर एक मिर्जाई की छूरी से वीरगति पाने वाली प्रथम विभूति पं.लेखराम ही थे | आपने मिडिल तक उर्दू फ़ारसी की शिक्षा अपने ग्राम में व पेशावर में प्राप्त की | फ़ारमुग़लकाल के बाद सी के सभी प्रमाणिक साहित्यिक ग्रन्थों को छोटी सी आयु में पढ़ डाला | अपने चाचा पं.गण्डाराम के प्रभाव में पुलिस में भर्ती हो गए | आप मत, पन्थो का अध्ययन करते रहे | प्रसिद्द सुधारक मुंशी कन्हैयालाल जी के पत्र नीतिप्रकाश से महर्षि दयानन्द की जानकारी पाकर ऋषि दर्शन के अजमेर गए | १७ मई १८८१ को अजमेर में ऋषि के प्रथम व अंतिम दर्शन किये, शंका-समाधान किया | उपदेश सुने और सदैव के लिए वैदिक-धर्म के हो गए |

सत्यनिष्ठ धर्मवीर, वीर विप्र लेखरामजी का चरित्र सब मानवों के लिए बड़ा प्रेरणादायी है | इस युग में विधर्मियों की शुद्धि के लिए सबसे अधिक उत्साह दिखाने वाले पं.लेखराम ही थे, इस कार्य के लिए उन्होंने अपना जीवन दे दिया| आज हिन्दू समाज उनके पुनीत कार्य को अपना रहा है | परन्तु खेद की बात है कि आर्यसमाज मन्दिरों के अतिरिक्त किसी हिन्दू के घर या संघठन में पण्डितजी का चित्र नही मिलता | आर्यों की संतान इन हिन्दुओं को नही भूलना चाहिए कि विदेशी शासकों के पोषक व प्रबल समर्थक इन्हीं मिर्ज़ा गुलाम अहमद ने अपनी एक पुस्तक में हिन्दुओं को “सैदे करीब” लिखा था | इसका अर्थ है कि हिन्दू तो मुसलमानों की पकड़ में शीघ्र आनेवाला शिकार है |

पण्डितजी अडिग ईश्वरविश्वासी, महान मनीषी, स्पष्ट वक्ता, आदर्श धर्म-प्रचारक, त्यागी तपस्वी, लेखक, गवेषक, और बड़े पवित्र आत्मा थे | एक बार पण्डितजी ने आर्यसमाज पेशावर के मंत्री श्री बाबू सुर्जनमल के साथ अफगानिस्तान में ईसाई मत के प्रचारक पादरी जोक्स से पेशावर छावनी में भेंट की | पादरी महोदय ने कहा कि बाइबिल में ईश्वर को पिता कहा गया है | ऐसी उत्तम शिक्षा अन्यत्र किसी ग्रन्थ में नहीं है | पण्डितजी ने कहा “ऐसी बात नही है | वेद और प्राचीन आर्य ऋषियों की बात तो छोड़िये अभी कुछ सौ वर्ष पहले नानकदेव जी महाराज ने भी बाइबिल से बढ़कर शिक्षा दी है| पादरी ने पूछा कहाँ है ?? पण्डितजी ने कहा देखिये—

तुम मात पिता हम बालक तेरे |
तुमरी किरपा सुख घनेरे || “

यहाँ ईश्वर को पिता ही नही माता भी कहा गया है| ये शिक्षा तो बाइबिल की शिक्षा से भी बढ़कर है| माता का प्रेम पिता के प्रेम से कहीं अधिक होता है | इसीलिए ईसा मसीह को युसूफ पुत्र न
कहकर इबने मरियम (मरियम पुत्र) कहा जाता है | ये सुनकर पादरी महोदय ने चुप्पी साध ली | इसी प्रकार अजमेर में पादरी ग्रे(Grey) ने भी इसी प्रकार का प्रश्न उठाया तब पण्डितजी ने यजुर्वेद
मंत्र संख्या ३२/१० का प्रमाण देकर उनकी भी बोलती बंद कर दी थी |

रोपड़ के पादरी पी सी उप्पल ने एक राजपूत युवक को बहला-फुसलाकर ईसाई बना लिया, पण्डितजी को सुचना मिली तो वे रोपड़ पहुंचे, तब तक रोपड़ के दीनबंधु सोमनाथजी ने उसे शुद्ध कर लिया था | पण्डितजी ने रोपड़ पहुंचकर मंडी में लगातार कई दिन तक बाइबिल पर व्याख्यान दिए | पादरी उप्पल को लिखित व मौखिक शास्त्रार्थ के लिए निमंत्रण दिया | उप्पल महोदय ने चुप्पी साध ली | घटना अप्रैल १८९५ की है |

मिर्ज़ा गुलाम अहमद ने ‘सत बचन’ नाम से एक पुस्तक छापी | उसमें यह सिद्ध करने का यत्न किया कि बाबा नानकदेवजी पक्के मुसलमान थे | इस पुस्तक के छपने पर सिखों मरण बड़ी हलचल
मची | तब प्रतिष्ठित सिखों ने पण्डितजी से निवेदन किया वे इसका उत्तर दें | उस समय पण्डितजी के सिवा दूसरा व्यक्ति इसका उत्तर देने वाला सूझता भी नही था | बलिदान से पूर्व इस विषय पर एक ओजस्वी व खोजपूर्णव्याख्यान देकर मिर्ज़ा साहेब की पुस्तक का युक्ति व प्रमाणों से प्रतिवाद किया| भारी संख्या में सिख उन्हें सुनने आये, सेना के सिख जवान भी बहुत बड़ी संख्या में वहां उपस्थित थे | आपके व्याख्यान के पश्चात् सेना के वीर सिख जवानों ने पण्डितजी को ऐसे उठा लिया जैसे पहलवान को विजयी होने पर उसके शिष्य उठा लेते हों |

पं.लेखरामजी धर्म रक्षा के लिए संकटों, आपत्तियों और विपत्तियों का सामना किया | उनके व्यवहार से ऐसा लगता है कि मानों बड़े से बड़े संकट को भी वो कोई महत्व नही देते थे | उनके पिताजी की मृत्यु हुई तो भी वे घर में न रुक सके | बस गए और चल पड़े | उन्हें भाई की मृत्यु की सूचना प्रचार-यात्रा में ही मिली, फिर भी प्रचार में ही लगे रहे | एक कार्यक्रम के पश्चात् दुसरे और दुसरे के पश्चात् तीसरे में| इकलौते पुत्र की मृत्यु से भी विचलित न हुए | पत्नी को परिवार में छोड़कर फिर चल पड़े | दिन रात एक ही धुन थी कि वैदिक धर्म का प्रचार सर्वत्र करूँ |

पंडित लेखराम तो जैसे साक्षात् मृत्यु को ललकारते थे| कादियां का मिर्ज़ा गुलाम अहमद स्वयं को नबी पैगम्बर घोषित कर रहा था और पण्डितजी को मौत की धमकियाँ दे रहा था | उसने श्रीराम पर
श्रीकृष्ण पर, गौ पर, माता कौशल्या पर, नामधारी गुरु रामसिंह पर, महर्षि दयानन्द, वेद और उपनिषद इत्यादि सब गन्दे-गन्दे प्रहार किये | उसने श्रीकृष्ण महाराज को तो सुअर मारने वाला लिखा |
पर यहाँ पं.लेखराम धर्म पर उसके प्रत्येक वार का उत्तर देते थे | जब पण्डितजी सामने आते तो खुद को शिकारी कहने वाला बिल में छुप जाता | अपने बलिदान से एक वर्ष पूर्व पण्डितजी लाहौर रेलवे स्टेशन के पास एक मस्जिद में पहुंचे, उन्हें पता चला कि मिर्ज़ाजी वहां आये हैं | मिर्ज़ा उनकी हत्या के षड्यंत्रों में लगा था| जाते ही मिर्ज़ा को नमस्ते करके सच और झूठ का निर्णय करने का निमंत्रण दे दिया | विचार करिए जिस व्यक्ति से मृत्यु लुकती-छिपती थी और नर नाहर लेखराम मौत को गली-गली खोजता फिरता था | मौत को ललकारता हुआ लेखराम मिर्ज़ा के घर तक पहुंचा|
कादियां भी मिर्ज़ा के इलहामी कोठे में जाकर उसे ललकारा | आत्मा की अमरता के सिद्धांत को मानकर मौत के दांत खट्टे करने लेखराम जैसे महात्मा विरले होते हैं |

पण्डितजी ने हिन्दू-जाति की रक्षा के लिए क्या नही किया ?? स्यालकोट में सेना के दो सिख जवान मुसलमान बनने लगे | जब सिख विद्वानों के समझाने पर भी वे नही टेल तप सिंघसभा वालों ने
आर्यसमाजियों से कहा पं.लेखराम को शीघ्र बुलाओ | पण्डितजी आये | उन युवकों का शंका-समाधान किया, शास्त्रार्थ हुआ और वे मुसलमान बनने से बचा लिए गए | जम्मू में कोई ठाकुरदास मुसलमान होने लगा तो पण्डितजी ने जाकर उसे बचाया | एल लाला हरजस राय मुसलमान हो गए | ये प्रतिष्ठित परिवार में जन्मे थे | फारसी, अरबी, अंग्रेजी के बड़े ऊँचे विद्वान थे | हरजस राय का नाम अब मौलाना अब्दुल अज़ीज़ था | वह गुरुदासपुर में Extra Assistant Commisiner रहे थे | यह सबसे बड़ा पद था जो भारतीय तब पा सकते थे | पण्डितजी कृपा से वे शुद्ध होकर पुनः हरजस राय बन गए| एक मौलाना अब्दुल रहमान तो पण्डितजी के प्रभाव से सोमदत्त बने | हैदारबाद के एक योग्य मौलाना हैदर शरीफ पर आपके साहित्य का ऐसा रंग चढ़ा कि हृदय बदल गया | वे वैदिक धर्मी बन गए |
मौलाना शरीफ बहुत बड़े कवि थे |

एक बार पण्डितजी प्रचारयात्रा से लाहौर लौटे तो उन्हें पता चला कि मुसलमान एक अभागी हिन्दू युवती को उठाकर ले गए हैं | पण्डितजी ने कहा मुझे एक सहयोगी युवक चाहिए मैं उसे खोजकर लाऊंगा | पण्डितजी युवक को लेकर मस्जिदों में उसकी खोज में निकले | उन्होंने एक बड़ी मस्जिद में एक लड़की को देखा | भला मस्जिद में स्त्री का क्या काम ? यह आकृति में ही हिन्दू दिखाई दी | पण्डितजी ने उसकी बांह पकड़कर कहा “चलो मेरे साथ |” शूर शिरोमणि लेखराम भीड़ को चीरकर उस अबला को ले आये | आश्चर्य की बात तो यह है कि उस नर नाहर को रोकने टोकने की उन लोगों की हिम्मत ही न हुई |
इसी कारण देवतास्वरूप भाई परमानन्द जी कहा करते थे कि डर वाली नस-नाड़ी यदि मनुष्यों में कोई होती है तो पं.लेखराम में वो तो कत्तई नही थी |

पं.लेखराम जी ने ‘बुराहीने अहमदियों’ के उत्तर में ‘तकजीबे बुराहीने अहमदिया’ ग्रन्थ तीन भागों में प्रकाशित करवाया | इसके छपने के साथ ही धूम मच गयी | ईसाई पत्रिका ‘नूर अफशां’ में भी इसकी समीक्षा करते हुए पण्डितजी की भूरी-भूरी प्रशंसा की | पण्डितजी इस मामले में आर्य समाज में एक परम्परा के जनक भी हैं, विरोधी यदि कविता में आर्य-धर्म पर प्रहार करते थे तो पण्डितजी कविता में ही उत्तर देते थे | जिस छंद में प्रहारकर्ता लिखता, पण्डितजी उसी छंद में लिखते थे |

मिर्ज़ा गुलाम अहमद कादियानी ने पण्डितजी को मौत की धमकियाँ देकर वेद-पथ से विचलित करना चाहा| पण्डितजी ने सदा यही कहा मुझे जला दो, मार दो, काट दो, परन्तु मैं वेद पथ से मुख नही मोड़ सकता | इसी घोष के अनुसार एक छलिया उनके पास शुद्धि का बहाना बनाकर आया | उनका नमक खता रहा | उनका चेला बनने का नाटक किया | पण्डितजी महर्षि दयानन्द का जीवन चरित्र लिखते-लिखते थक गए तो अंगडाई ली | अंगड़ाई लेते हुए अपनी छाती को खोला तो वो नीच वहीँ बैठा था, उसने कम्बल में छुरा छुपा रखा था | क्रूर के सामने शूर का सीना था, पास कोई नही था | उस कायर ने पण्डितजी के पेट में छूरा उतार दिया और भाग निकला | वो तारीख थी ६ मार्च १८९७ |

उपसंहार—धर्मवीर पं.लेखराम की महानता का वर्णन करने में लेखनी असमर्थ है | स्वामी श्रद्धानंद जैसे नेता उनका अदब मानते थे | सनातन धर्म के विद्वान और नेता पं.दीनदयाल व्याख्यान वाचस्पति कहते थे कि पं.लेखराम के होते हुए कोई भी हिन्दू जाति का कुछ नही बिगाड़ सकता | ईसाई पत्रिका का सम्पादक उनकी विद्वत्ता पर मुग्ध था | उनके बलिदान पर अमेरिका की एक पत्रिका ने उनपर लेख छापा था | ‘मुहम्मदिया पाकेट’ के विद्वान लेखक मौलाना अब्दुल्ला ने तो उन्हें ‘कोहे वकार’ अर्थात गौरव-गिरी लिखा है | पर पण्डितजी का बलिदान व्यर्थ नहीं गया, वेदों को जीवन भर पानी पी पीकर कोसने वाला मिर्ज़ा भी मरते वक़्त वेदों को ईश्वरीय ज्ञान लिखकर जाता है | पण्डितजी हम और क्या लिखे ! अपनी बात को महाकवि ‘शंकर’ के शब्दों में समाप्त करते है—–

धर्म के मार्ग में अधर्मी से कभी डरना नही |
चेत कर चलना कुमारग में कदम धरना नही ||
शुद्ध भावों में भयानक भावना भरना नही |
बोधवर्धक लेख लिखने में कमी करना नहीं ||

सुजीत मिश्र

पंडित मनसाराम जी “वैदिक तोप”

स्वनामधन्य पं॰मनसारामजी ‘वैदिक तोप’ आर्यजगत्‌ की महान विभूतियोँ मेँ अपना स्थान रखते हैँ। पण्डितजी का जन्म 1890 ई॰ हड्डाँवाला नंगल[जाखल के निकट] हरियाणा प्राप्त मेँ हुआ था।

आपके पिता लाला शंकरदासजी अन्न-धन से सम्पन्न, सुखी सद्‌गृहस्थ व्यापारी थे। वे कट्टर मूर्तिपूजक और पौराणिक थे।
पुत्र भी उनके रंग मेँ रंग गया। पण्डितजी की प्राइमरी तक की शिक्षा वामनवाला ग्राम मेँ हुई। तत्पश्चात्‌ टोहाना के मिडल स्कूल मेँ दाखिल हो गये। 1907 मेँ पण्डितजी आठवीँ श्रेणी मेँ प्रविष्ट हुए। इसी वर्ष मेँ पिताजी का देहान्त हो गया। पण्डितजी को स्कूल छोड़कर घर सम्हालना पड़ा।

लाला शंकरदास जी के वहां एक पटवारी श्री रामप्रसादजी रहा करते थे, ये बड़े सदाचारी, मधुरभाषी और निष्ठावान आर्य समाजी थे | जब मनसारामजी घर पर रहने लगे तो वे इनको वैदिक धर्म के सिद्धांतों और तत्वज्ञान से परिचय कराया करते थे | मनसारामजी महाशय रामप्रसादजी के सत्संग से आर्य समाज की ओर आकृष्ट हो गये |
१९०८ में टोहाना में आर्यों और पौराणिकों के बीच एक शास्त्रार्थ हुआ | आर्य समाज के तरफ से पं.राजारामजी शास्त्री ने पक्ष रखा और पौराणिको की ओर से पं.लक्ष्मीनारायण जी थे | श्री उदमीरामजी अध्यक्ष नियुक्त हुए | इस शास्त्रार्थ को देखने वालों में पंडित मनसाराम भी थे | शास्त्रार्थ में पं.राजाराम जी की युक्तियों की धाक पंडित मनसारामजी के मस्तिष्क पर जम गयी | आप आर्य समाज के दीवाने हो गये | अब पं.मनसाराम के मन में संस्कृत अध्ययन की धुन सवार हुई | सर्वप्रथम आप कुरुक्षेत्र की सनातनधर्म पाठशाला में प्रविष्ट हुए | यहाँ से हरिद्वार पहुंचे, संस्कृत अध्ययन की लगन में
आपने गुरुकुल काँगड़ी में चपरासी की नौकरी कर ली, उनका विचार था कि गुरुकुल में एक ओर संस्कृत अध्ययन भी कर लूँगा औरे आर्य समाज की सेवा भी कर लूँगा | पर इनकी मनोकामना
यहाँ भी पूरी न हुई | यहाँ से निराश होकर ये ज्ञानपिपासु विद्या-नगरी काशी में पहुँच गया |

काशी में संस्कृत अध्ययन के कई केन्द्र खुले हुए थे | पर उनमें सिर्फ जन्म के ब्राह्मणों को ही भोजन मिलता था | संस्कृतज्ञान के पिपासु ने कितने दिन भूखे रहकर काटे होंगे, कौन जानता है ? श्रीमनसाराम जी जंगल से बेर तोड़कर लाया करते थे, उन्हें ही खाकर निर्वाह करते
थे | एक दिन वे बेर तोड़ रहे थे, एक सेठ उधर आ निकले | संस्कृत का विद्यार्थी भांपकर सेठ ने पूछा—“क्या कर रहे हो ?” मनसाराम जी ने अपनी समस्या बता दी | सेठ ने पूछा—“केन्द्रों में भोजन क्यूँ नही करते ? मनसाराम जी ने कहा “वहां तो केवल ब्राह्मणों को भोजन मिलता है, मैं तो जन्म से अग्रवाल हूँ |” सेठ की गैरत जागी, वो स्वयं भी ऐसे कई केन्द्रों को दान देता था, उसने मनसाराम जी से कहा “तुम अमुक केन्द्र में जाकर भोजन किया कारो, वहां कोई तुम्हारी जाति नही पूछेगा |”

भोजन की समस्या से निश्चिन्त होकर मनसाराम जी विद्याध्ययन में जुट गए | विद्या समाप्त करके मनसारामजी काशी के पण्डितों के बीच गए और उनके समक्ष एक प्रश्न रखा कि—‘मैं जन्म से अग्रवाल हूँ, मुझे अब पण्डित कहलाने का अधिकार प्राप्त है या नही ? इसपर बड़ा वाद-विवाद हुआ | मनसाराम जी की विजय हुई | उन्हें पण्डित की पदवी प्रदान की गई|

विद्या प्राप्ति के बाद आप कार्यक्षेत्र में उतरे | आपके गहन अध्ययन, तीव्रबुद्धि, और अकाट्य तर्कों के कारण आपकी कीर्ति-चन्द्रिका छिटकने लगी | आर्यसमाज के क्षितिज पर एक नया नक्षत्र अपनी
प्रभा विकीर्ण करने लगा | पण्डितजी सिरसा में धर्म-प्रचार कर रहे थे, उन्ही दिनों स्वामी स्वतंत्रानन्दजी सिरसा पधारे | पण्डितजी की बहुमुखी प्रतिभा से प्रभावित होकर इन्हें आर्य प्रतिनिधिसभा पंजाब की सेवा में ले गए | पण्डितजी ने सारे पंजाब को वैदिक-नाद से गुंजा दिया| शास्त्रार्थ में उनकी विशेष रूचि थी | शास्त्रार्थ-समर के आप विजयी-योध्या थे|

एक बार भिवानी में शास्त्रार्थ हो रहा था, पौराणिकों ने आपको पूरा समय न दिया | नियमानुसार आपने २५ मिनट मांगे | उत्तर में पण्डितजी पर लाठियों से आक्रमण हुआ | जिसपर पण्डितजी ने
एक ट्रैक लिखा “मेरे पच्चीस मिनट” | इस शास्त्रार्थ का टेकचन्दजी पंसारी पर ऐसा प्रभाव पड़ा कि उसने प्रतिमाएं फ़ेंक और आस्तिक बन गया | आर्यों से भिन्न लोगों पर पण्डितजी की कैसी धाक थी, इस विषय में निम्न घटना अति महत्वपूर्ण है | एक बार रामामंडी में एक जैन विद्वान आये | उनके प्रवचन होने लगे | एक दिन सभा के
अंत में एक किसान वेशधारी ने जैनियों के अहिंसा सम्बन्धी सिद्धांत पर कुछ प्रश्न कर दिए | प्रश्न सुनते ही जैन विद्वान ने कहा—“आप पं.मनसाराम तो नही हैं? ऐसे प्रश्न वे ही कर सकते हैं, साधारण व्यक्ति इतनी गहराई से विचार ही नही कर सकता| सचमुच वे ग्रामीण पण्डितजी ही थे |

उधर २-३ मई १९३१ को आर्यसमाज जाखल के वार्षिकोत्सव पर शास्त्रार्थ रखा गया | इसके अध्यक्ष थे स्वामी स्वतंत्रतानन्द और शास्त्रार्थकर्ता थे पं.लोकनाथजी ‘तर्कवाचस्पति’ |
पण्डितजी ने ‘शास्त्रार्थ-जाखल’ नाम से उर्दू में एक पुस्तक लिखी | पौराणिक बौखला उठे| भारी धन-व्यय करके उन्होंने ‘सनातन-धर्म विजय’ नामक पुस्तक लिखवाई \ पुस्तक क्या थी गाली-गलौज का पुलिन्दा थी | पण्डितजी ने सभ्य भाषा में युक्ति और प्रमाणों से सुभूषित लगभग पांच गुना बड़ा १२२४ पृष्ठों का ग्रन्थ लिखा, जिसका नाम रखा- “पौराणिक पोप पर वैदिक तोप” | इस ग्रन्थ के प्रकाशन होते ही पण्डितजी के नाम की धूम मच गयी और आपका
नाम ही ‘वैदिक तोप’ पड़ गया |

पण्डितजी के तर्क कितने तीखे होते थे, इसका आभास भटिंडा-शास्त्रार्थ से होता है | पण्डितजी ने चार प्रश्न रखे थे—
१- सनातन धर्म में पशुवध आदिकाल से है या बाद की मिलावट है ?
२- नाविक की पुत्री सत्यवती के गर्भ से उत्पन्न व्यास जी का वर्ण पौराणिक-मत के अनुसार क्या है?
३- पौराणिक मत के अनुसार सिख, जाट, स्वर्णकार, और कायस्थ किस वर्ण में हैं ?
४- पौराणिक मत के अनुसार दलित भाई ईसाई-मुसलमानों से अच्छे हैं वा नही ? अच्छे हैं तो उनके साथ अच्छा व्यवहार क्यूँ नही किया जाता ?

पण्डितजी के प्रश्न सुनकर पौराणिक अधिकारी ने कहा—मनसाराम को यहाँ से बाहर निकालो |

संगरूर-शास्त्रार्थ में मृतक-श्राद्ध पर बोलते हुए पण्डितजी ने कहा— ‘मैं भी इस जन्म में कहीं से आया हूँ| यदि मृतकों को श्राद्ध का माल पहुँचता है तो मेरा पार्सल कहाँ जाता है ?

पण्डितजी विद्या के सागर थे, आर्य समाज के मंच व्याख्यान देते तो श्रोताओं से कहते कि किस विषय पर बोलूं, आप जिस पर कहें उसी पर बोलता हूँ| उनके व्याख्यान सैद्द्धान्तिक होते थे|
व्याख्यानों में प्रमाणों की बहुलता होती थी | पण्डितजी ने स्वतंत्रता-आन्दोलन में भी भाग लिया था और कई बार जेल भी गए | १९२२ में
गाँधी द्वारा चलाये गए पहले सत्याग्रह में पण्डितजी जेल गए | उन्हें हिसार जेल में रखा गया | अभियोग के दिनों में आपने एक ऐसी साहसिक बात कही जो किसी भी क्रन्तिकारी की मुख से न निकली होगी | पण्डितजी को मजिस्ट्रेट के आगे पेश किया गया तो आपने पाने मुंह पर कपड़ा डाल लिया | मजिस्ट्रेट ने कारण पूछा तो आपने कहा—“जिस व्यक्ति ने चाँदी के चन्द-ठीकरों के लिए अपने आपको बेच दिया हो, मैं उसकी शक्ल नही देखना चाहता | ये कोर्ट का अपमान था | सत्याग्रह के साथ-साथ एक और अभियोग न्यायालय की मानहानि का भी चलने लगा |

पण्डितजी ने साहित्य भी बहुत लिखा, इनका सारा साहित्य खोजपूर्ण है | पौराणिको के खण्डन में इस साहित्य से उत्तम साहित्य नही लिखा गया | उनके कुछ प्रसिद्ध ग्रन्थ है—
१- पौराणिक पोलप्रकाश
२- पौराणिक पोप पर वैदिक तोप
३- चेतावनी प्रकाश
४- पौराणिक दम्भ पर वैदिक बम्ब

शिवपुराण आलोचना, भविष्यपुराण आलोचना आदि और अनेक ग्रन्थ पण्डितजी ने लिखे थे| दुर्भाग्य से अधिकतर अप्राप्य है | जून ईसवी १९४१ में पण्डितजी परलोक सिधार गए | पण्डितजी का पार्थिव शरीर नही रहा, परन्तु उनका यशरूपी शरीर अजर और अमर है |

सुजीत मिश्र

Viman Vidya and Shivkar Bapuji Talpade

Pandit Shivkar Bapuji Talpade

Viman Vidya and Shivkar Bapuji Talpade 

Author : Vijay Upadyaya

Introduction

According to Bhāratiya knowledge heritage, Veda is the source of all knowledge. Our scholars and seers have derived all knowledge from this only. But after the Mahabhārat war with the decline in the Vedic ethics, scientific deciphering tradition of Veda was also vanished gradually.

But in the 19th century it was again brought into practiced by Swāmi Dayānand Saraswati and he started the scientific deciphering process of the Vedas. He had brought into light the forgotten Vimāna Vidyā existed during the Vedic period and explained the various technologies present in the Vedas in his book titled ‘Rig-Vedādic-Bhāshya-Bhumikā’ published in 1877.

In the ‘Nau-Vimāna Vidyā’ chapter of this book he explained the fundamental principles of Vimāna and Ship from the eleven Mantras of the Rig-Veda. Also in his commentaries on the Vedas name as ‘Yajur-Veda and Rig-Veda Bhāshya’ he deciphered and explained the fundamental principles of Vimāna Vidyā present in the Veda Mantras. Pandit Shivkar Bapuji Talpade came to know about from these and constructed and flew the first unmanned aircraft after taking inspiration from these texts.

 

Education

Shivkar Bapuji Talpade was born in 1864 in Mumbai, Maharashtra. He was belonged to the Pathare Prabhu Community. During his study in Sir J. J. School of Art, Mumbai he came to know about ancient Indian Aeronautics through his teacher Chiranjilal Verma. He guided Talpade to read Swami Dayanand Saraswati works related to ancient aeronautics viz. ‘Rigvedādic Bhāshya Bhumikā’ and ‘Rigved and Yajurveda Bhāshya’. Inspired from these texts he decided to construct Vedic Vimāna described in the Vedas and started learning Vedic Sanskrit language.

Shivkar used the scientific method of decoding Veda Mantras prescribed by Swami Dayanand Saraswati. Following Dayānand’s method, he studied the fundamental principles of Vimana from the Veda Mantras. To carry out the experimental and observational analysis of the Veda Mantras, he set up a laboratory in 1892. Based on his findings, he was the first man to claim that the shape of a Vimana is like that of a bird. Initially he built a prototype and later constructed a 6×4 feet aircraft and placed the ‘Shanku-Yantra’ in the centre.

Research in Vedic Aeronautics by Pandit Shivkar Bāpuji Talpade

Shivkar carried out experimental and observational analysis of the Veda Mantras containing the fundamental principles of Vimāna. Based on these Mantras, he manufactured the first aircraft of the modern era. His research work on Vedic Vimāna is explained below.

  1. Shape & Utilization of Vedic Vimāna

Shivkar studied and deciphered the following two Mantras of Rigved and described the shape and utilization of Vimāna. These are

तुग्रो ह भुज्युमश्विनोदमेघे रयिं न कश्चिन्ममृवाँ अवाहाः । तमूहथुर्नौभिरात्मन्वतीभिरन्तरिक्षप्रुद्भिरपोदकाभिः ॥१॥

तिस्रः क्षपस्त्रिरहातिव्रजद्भिर्नासत्या भुज्युमूहथुः पतंगैः । समुद्रस्य धन्वन्नार्द्रस्य पारे त्रिभी रथैः शतपद्भिः षळश्वैः ॥२॥

ऋग्वेद,मण्डल.सूक्त.मंत्रक्रमांक/अष्टक.अध्याय.वर्ग.मन्त्रसंख्या=१.११६.३,४/१.८.८.३,४

In these two Mantras he focused on some words and after comprehending that he got the knowledge of the shape and use of the vimāna. These words are –

i.        (अन्तरिक्षप्रुद्भिः) – That which can be used to move in the sky and which is known by the name of Vimāna.

ii.        (पतंगैः) – Similar to a kite or a bird and as fast as horse.

iii.        (र्नौभि) – Ship which is used to move in ocean at comfort.

From these words he concluded that Vimāna can be used to travel in sky and Ship can be used in water. There shape is like that of a bird.

 

  1. Machines used in Vimāna

He got to know about the machines required to make the Vimāna fly after deciphering the following Mantra.

द्वादश प्रधयश्चक्रमेकं त्रीणि नभ्यानि क उ तच्चिकेत । तस्मिन्त्साकं त्रिशता न शङ्कवोऽर्पिताः षष्टिर्न चलाचलासः ॥
                              ऋग्वेद,मण्डल.सूक्त.मंत्रक्रमांक/अष्टक.अध्याय.वर्ग.मन्त्रसंख्या=१.१६४.४८/२.३.२३.२

In this Mantra the word which indicates the machine to be used in the Vimāna is (शङ्कवोऽर्पिताः). This means a machine having the shape of a cone has to be placed in the Vimāna. This machine should have six openings. While moving up, orifice present below should be opened up and upper orifice should be closed. While moving down, upper orifice should be opened up and other one should be closed. Like wise if the aircraft has to be moved to east, the west one should be opened up and vice-versa. In a similar manner it is to be executed for the north and south directions.

 

Experiments

This unmanned plane was flown in December of 1895 at Girgaum Chaupati beach in front of audience. It is said that the plane rose to a certain height and then came down on the ground. But this event wasn’t recorded officially by the British Govt. He also exhibited this Vedic Vimāna in an exhibition at town hall in Mumbai organised by the Bombay Art Society.

Literary Works

                        Shivkar was short of funds and didn’t receive any support from the then British government.  As a result he could not expand his research further but he decided to pass on his work and published a Marathi book titled ‘Prāchina Vimāna Kalechā Shodha’ in 1907. Later in 1909 he published ‘Rig-Veda – Prathama Sukta Evam Tyāchā Artha’ explaining the scientific method of deciphering the Vedas.

Shivkar practiced the Yoga Vidyā and wrote three books on this namely ‘Pātanjali Yogdarshanātargat Shabdo Kā Bhutārtha Darshan’, ‘Man Aur Uskā Bal’ and ‘Gurumantra Mahimā’. Also he translated the two famous book of Swami Dayanand Saraswati from Hindi to Marathi and edited six other books. He was also the editor of a magazine called ‘Arya Dharma’. Due to his literary contribution, he was awarded with ‘Vidyā-Prakāsha-Pradeepa’ by the Kolhapur Shankarāchārya. Shivkar was the Secretary at the “Vedavidyā Prachārini Pāthashālā’ and member of ‘Veda Dharma Prachārini Sabha’.

Family Details

Shivkar Bapuji Talpade was married to Smt. Laxmi  Bai. They were blessed with two sons and one daughter. Elder son Moreswar was working as a health inspector in the Health Dept. of Bombay Municipality while the younger one Vinayaka was a clerk in the Bank of Bombay. Daughter’s name was Navubai.

Study of Vyamaanika Shastra

In 1916, Pandit Shivkar Bāpuji Talpade studied Maharshi Bhāradwāja’s ‘Yantra-Sarwaswa, Amshubodhini and Aksha-Tantra’ under the guidance of Pandit subrāya Shāstri of Bengaluru. These texts were related to the ancient aeronautics. Maharishi Bhāradwāja classified the Vimānas based on the basis of source of energy used in the Vimāna. The aphorism is

“शक्त्युद्गमोदयष्टौ”                     विमानाधिकरण सू. १ अधि.५४ ।

                        This is explained by sage Bodhāyana as –

शक्त्युद्गमो भूतवाहो धूमयानश्शिखोद्गमः

अंशुवाहस्तारमुखोमणि वाहो मरुत्सखः ।।

इत्यष्टदाधिकरणे वर्गाण्युक्तानि शास्त्रतः ।

                        Based on the construction and energy sources Vedic Vimānas were classified into eight different types. These are –

Types                                    Energy Sources

  1. शक्त्युद्गमवर्गम् ।          Electric Energy.
  2. भूतवाहः वर्गम् ।              Five Elements known as Pacha-Mahābhuta.
  3. धूमयानः वर्गम् ।             Steam.
  4. शिखोद्मः वर्गम् ।           Wax prepared from various plants.
  5. अंशुवाहः वर्गम् ।             Solar Energy.
  6. तारामुखः ।                     Energy extracted from the Extra-terrestrial bodies falling on the earth.
  7. मणिवाहः वर्गम् ।            Heat and Electricity extracted from air.
  8. मरुत्सखाः वर्गम् ।           Energy collected from air after separating its heat and humidity.

Pandit Shivkar Bāpuji Talpade constructed the Marutsakhā type of Vimāna. His first attempt of flying it was not very much successful but he kept on rectifying the defects with the dogged determination and working at it day and night to bring it to perfection. This worsens his health and finally he left his mortal on 17 September 1917.

 

References

  1. ऋग्वेदादिकभाष्यभूमिका, स्वामी दयानन्द सरस्वती, १८७७ (पुनः प्रकाशित २०१२) ।
  2. बृहत विमानशास्त्र, स्वामी ब्रह्ममुनि परिव्राजक, १९५८ (पुनः प्रकाशित १९९२) ।
  3. सत्यार्थप्रकाश, स्वामी दयानन्द सरस्वती, १८७५ (पुनः प्रकाशित २०१२) ।
  4. हिन्दीशिल्पशास्त्रसार (मराठी), श्री कृष्णाजी विनायक वझे, १९२९ (पुनः प्रकाशित २०१३) ।
  5. वैदिक वाङ्मय का इतिहास-द्वितीय भाग, पण्डित भगवद्दत्त, १९३१ (पुनः प्रकाशित २००८) ।
  6. ऋषि दयानन्द की वेदभाष्य-शैली, डॉ. धर्मवीर, १९८८ ।
  7. उपदेश मंजरी, स्वामी दयानन्द सरस्वती, १८७५ (पुनः प्रकाशित २०१३) ।
  8. प्राचीन विमान विद्या (पूर्वार्ध), पं. श्रीपाद दामोदर सातवलेकर, केसरी, १० मई १९५३ ।
  9. पाठारे प्रभूंचा इतिहास (मराठी), श्री प्रताप वेलकर, १९९७ ।
  10.  प्रभुमासिक (न्यू सीरीज) (मराठी), अक्टोबर, १९१७ ।
  11.  प्राचीन विमान कलेचा शोध (मराठी), शिवकर बापूजी तलपदे, १९०७ ।
  12.  ऋग्वेद-प्रथम सूक्त व त्याचे अर्थ (मराठी), शिवकर बापूजी तलपदे, १९०९ ।
  13.  गुरुमंत्र महिमा (गुजराती), पण्डित शिवकर बापूजी तलपदे, १९१६ ।
  14.  The Autobiography of Maharshi Pandit T. Subraya Sasthriji, G Venkatachala Sarma, 12 Mar, 1972.

 

 

 

Shyamji Krishna Varma- His Making and Dayanad Saraswati , By Vidhu

shyam ji

 

Shyamaji Krishna Varma was born on 4 October 1857 in Mandvi (in the Kutch province of modern day Gujarat).  His mother died when he was only 11 years old, after which he was raised by his grandmother.  After finishing school he moved to Mumbai for further education.  It was here that the seminal event of his life occurred; he came to the notice of Svami Dayanand Sarasvati who had founded the first Arya Samaj in Mumbai in 1875.  

Varma spoke Sanskrit so well that he impressed Dayanand (the greatest scholar of Sanskrit India has produced in recent millennia) immensely.  Varma’s brilliance as a young student of Sanskrit led to his becoming a disciple of Dayanand, who recognised such enormous potential in Varma that – despite his many other commitments – he took to, personally, tutoring Varma so as to optimise his knowledge of the intricacies of the grammar of Vedic Sanskrit.  Varma was soon competent to lecture on Vedic philosophy and religion, so much so that in 1877, a public speaking tour brought him to national prominence as well as to the attention of Monier Williams, an Oxford professor of Sanskrit who offered Shyamaji a job as his assistant.

As India’s first ardent nationalist under British rule, Dayanand had not only led Varma to the Vedas but also imbued in him the spirit of Nationalism necessary to build an independence movement brick by brick.  He therefore encouraged the young Shyamji to travel to the United Kingdom for higher studies and to subsequently further the cause of independence of India.  In truth, Dayanand fervently desired that the Vedic Dharma would spread to the West and saw Varma as an ideal messenger to propagate that cause.

With the help of a recommendation of Williams, Shyamji arrived in England to join Balliol College Oxford on 25 April 1879.  He returned to India in 1885 to start practice as a lawyer. After a short stay in Mumbai he settled in Ajmer, the ex-headquarters of his mentor Dayanand who by then had tragically had died in 1883, and continued his practice at the British Court in Ajmer. He went on to act as a minister in a number of Indian princely states in India.

]Due to tensions in his relationship with the colonial Crown authority, he was dismissed from such a position at Junagadh and chose to return to England in 1897; this bitter experience having shaken his faith in British Rule.  One of the effects of the British ruling India was that Indians started to move to Britain, primarily to seek further education.  Unfortunately, however, many such Indian students encountered racism when seeking living accommodation in England.   This is where Varma stamped an important mark on Indian history, because it was he who founded India House, a building in London he had bought as his home in 1900 which, in 1905, started a new life as a hostel for Indian students, based at 65 Cromwell Avenue, Highgate.

Krishna Varma was a great admirer of the work of Herbert Spencer, and his dictum that “Resistance to aggression is not simply justified, but imperative” [a Vedic dictum first defined thousands of years earlier by Lord Krishna in the Geeta].  Thus was born his plan for India House to become the locus for incubating an Indian revolutionary movement in Europe; it rapidly developed as an organised meeting point for radical nationalists among Indian students in England at that time and as one of the most prominent centres for Indian nationalism outside India.  Famous people to have later contact with this organisation were Gandhi, Lenin and Lala Lajpat Rai.  Later in 1905, he founded a periodical, the Indian Sociologist , and a society, the Indian Home Rule Society both intended to inspire sympathisers in the UK to lobby for political and social freedom as well as religious reform. Later still that year, at the United Congress of Democrats held in London, Shyamji spoke as a delegate of the India Home Rule Society.  His resolution on India’s future received a standing ovation from the entire conference.  Important to note is that he avoided the Indian National Congress , but instead kept in contact with various liberals, nationalists, social democrats and Irish Republicans.

Inevitably, such activities aroused the concern of the British government: Shyamji was disbarred from the Inner Temple and removed from its membership list on 30 April 1909 for writing anti-British articles in the Indian Sociologist.  Most of the British press were critical of Shyamji and carried outrageous allegations, against him and his newspaper, which he defended them boldly. The Times referred to him as the “Notorious Krishnavarma“.  His movements were so closely watched by British Secret Services that he decided to shift his headquarters to Paris, leaving India House in charge of Vir Sarvakar.

It was in 1907 that Shyamji left Britain secretly, to evade arrest by the British government, and moved to Paris. The British government’s attempts to extradite him from France failed, it is said, because he gained the support of many top French politicians.  Shyamji’s work in Paris helped gain support from people in other European countries, including Russia, for Indian Independence.  In 1914, as a result of France and Britain signing the Entente Cordiale, Varma thought it safest to move to Geneva.  For the best part of the next decade he continued to devote himself energetically to the mission of agitating for India’s independence.

It is probably appropriate to conclude that he is one of India’s unsung heroes in terms of his place in the history written about its struggle for independence, that is – so far – history has been unkind to him in not according him with the credit he merits for his contribution to India becoming free.  This is partially mitigated by a new town in his native state of Kutch being named, in the 1970s, Shyamji Krishna Varmanagar in his memory; later he was similarly honoured by the University of Kutch being renamed after him.

Shyamji Krishan Varma died in 1930 at the age of 73.  News of his death was suppressed by the British government in India.  Nevertheless tributes were paid to him in Lahore by Bhagat Singh and other inmates who were in jail at the time whilst undergoing a long and drawn out trial.  It was not until 22 August 2003 that his ashes reached India, when they were handed over to the then Chief Minister of Gujarat State, Narendra Modi by the Ville de Genève and the Swiss government – 55 years after India had become independent.  A memorial called Kranti Tirth dedicated to his memory was built and inaugurated in 2010 near his birth-place in Gujarat, Mandvi.  This museum houses his ashes, as well as a full scale replica of India House and galleries dedicated to other activists of the Indian independence movement.

 

Postscript

Can it be, uncharitably, suggested that Varma failed to deliver the outcomes expected of him by Svami Dayanand?  It is a fact that before he died he wrote at least one anxious letter to Varma in England, inquiring about the progress he was making in propagating the Vedic Dharma.  With hindsight, it would be fair to say that Dayanand’s dream was that Varma would – after Dayanand’s death – make the same type of impact in the West, would go on to make in successfully spotlighting Hinduism in the West.

Similarly, is it fair to lament that Varma, in his later life, became closer to the philosophy of Herbert Spencer than that of Dayanand?  If so, in mitigation, it must also be recognised that Dayanand’s dream was unrealisable in the context of when and where Varma lived after leaving India; being estranged from India in the era before air travel must have severely compromised his connections with the Arya Samaj movement.

In that light, it sadly must be conceded that Varma did not measure up to Vivekanand’s overall greatness, despite having the intellect and education to potentially do so.  As we know, Vivekanand failed in facilitating the conversion to Hinduism of large western populations; a result that is entirely understandable when considering flaws in the ideology of neo-Vedantism such as advaita, polytheism and idol worship. Persevering with in this speculative, and pathetic, lament leads one to next ask whether the Arya Samaj’s history would have been different if Varma had remained in India for his entire life?  If so, perhaps the Vedic Dharma would have put down stronger roots in India – roots it seems that are less vigorous today than Dayanand hoped for?

 

 

 

 

It was not Mahatma Gandhi who started the struggle for India’s independence

not mahatma

Author : Dr. Vibhu

The accuracy of the history of India as, contained in modern-day records, has been much criticised over the decades since India freed itself from British colonisation. The ‘official’ version, as accepted both in India and abroad, needs re-evaluation; as is always the case in dealing with the question ‘what is the truth?’ considerable intellectual integrity will be required to chart a course through this controversy.

To begin with, it must be remembered that India has – in truth – secured independence twice over, not once. The first victory was that of gaining freedom from Islamic rule by the Mughal dynasty; the contribution of the Sikhs in Punjab deserves to be singled out as being key in this success. Guru Gobind Singh must be hailed for the greatness of his leadership, and India should be eternally grateful to the Sikh Gurus and their people for conducting that struggle.

Whenever India’s Independence is celebrated, tribute must be paid to Maharishi Svami Dayanand for being the true pioneer of this struggle. Sadly, outside of the circles of the Arya Samaj movement, India seems to be guilty of overlooking this fact. The role of the Arya Samaj in the latter part of the 19th century in beginning the fight against British rule was profound. This article focuses on one example of its work; the effect of a book written by Dayanand in 1875.

The Arya-abhivinaya is a collection of 108 mantras from the Vedas that Svami Dayanand translated into Hindi. As a book, it is most notable for the inspirational style of the commentary that the author uses to explain each mantra in detail; which is why it galvanised many of India’s revolutionaries over coming generations. These patriots used it as a source of solace to drive them on the selfless path of service to the motherland. Two stories illustrate this well.

Firstly is the fact that Ram-Prasaad Bismil, that great young crusader for the freedom of India, used to read Arya-abhivinaya every day. The publisher’s note in the book’s English translation written by Satyananda Shastri in 1971 describes the inspiration Bismil gained from one of the mantras covered by Svami Dayanand in his book: This is why he was dauntless even in the face of death: Listen to the immortal roaring of this lion-hearted indomitable young martyr. He sang the following memorable stanza, even at the altar of death (just before he was hanged for treason):

Maalik terii razaa rahe aur tuu hii tuu rahe. Baaqii naa main rahuun na merii aarzuu rahe. [O Almighty God, you are eternally unchanging. May only, in this world, your will prevail and of none else. I am mortal; I surrender to You. I do not wish to survive any more nor do I wish any of my desires to outlive me.]

The second example is a case prosecuted for sedition, by the British authorities against members of the Arya Samaj in the district of Patiala, Punjab in 1907. Incredibly, the evidence submitted by the prosecution was a collection of patriotic quotations from the Arya-abhivinaya. It was alleged that the Arya Samaj was a seditious society, and that it wanted to overthrow the British Government in India because its members prayed the following prayer daily:

….O Supreme God, You are the greatest ruler among all worldly rulers. Kindly instil us with appropriate courage, fortitude, morality, courtesy, prowess, physical strength and mental stamina and many other such virtues, so that, we may remain independent and enjoy sovereign imperial sway. May no foreigner come to our country to rule over us, and may we never lose political independence and be enslaved by foreigners!….

Of course, this commentary is none other than Dayanand’s elucidation of mantra 38.14 of Yajur Veda. So, it can be seen that by 1875, well over half a century before Gandhi’s movement peaked, Svami Dayanand had already made his clarion call to North India to begin to resist British rule.

Dayanand’s great legacy is highlighted by the sentences that follow further on in the same paragraph explaining this mantra: ….Also, kindly bless us with independence in our own national affairs and freedom to visit other countries at will. May we able to manage our political and administrative affairs ourselves! May there be excellent men and women to do the needful in this regard, so that, our nation may never suffer for want of anything we need. O Master of all, please provide for our political bodies statesmen equipped with perfect learning and other requisite qualities. May our warriors and administrators, endowed with resourcefulness and foresight, excel in valour and other virtues….

Could any words ring any more true? Even today, with the malign influence of western corporations, this timeless masterpiece of wisdom surely must resonate – not only for the India of today but for political administrations of all nations of the world – for all time.

It must be asked why Dayanand has been ‘written out’ of the text-books of history that survive in India from the time of the British Raj. The answer simply is that a key plank of Britain’s strategy, for maintaining its grip on India in the very long term, was to try and make Christianity the national religion of India. For this to succeed, Dayanand’s aim of uniting all the people of India under one God (and thus one faith, the Vedic Dharma) by inspiring them to (re)turn to the Vedas would have to be thwarted. The British Government even went to the lengths of commissioning a German Christian scholar of Sanksrit – Prof. Max Muller – to write a translation of the Vedas that opposed Dayanand’s interpretation; much of Muller’s work clearly makes the judgement that Christian thought is of a superior quality to that of India’s.

A startling example of evidence of such prejudice is contained in a book by T. Williams titled Exposure of Dayanand Sarasvati and his followers (Both as to their Deliberate Falsification of the Rigveda and their immorality) published in 1889 in Delhi. Dayanand’s translation of the mantra RigVeda 10:10:10 is that the word yama denotes husband and yami denotes wife. Williams, however, is scathingly critical of this. He objects: ‘I have then shown that the speakers throughout this dialogue, are twins, a brother and a sister. The sister Yami desires ardently that her brother Yama should sexually lie with her….’

Such was the type of abuse, then, that his British detractors were directing at Dayanand a few years after his death, a measure of how intimidated the British authorities were by the Arya Samaj movement well before Gandhi arrived on the scene. This leaves us with this question. Can the history books – written by the British, and left as a legacy to India, and which are being used to teach history to Indian children to this day – be trusted? Even more heart-breaking is that this version of history is the only officially accepted one in India today.

Perhaps Gujarat’s recent decision to celebrate the memory of the great Sardar Vallabhai Patel will be the catalyst for India to likewise go on and place on its highest pedestal, its greatest son of recent millennia, Dayanand Saraswati.

LEKHRAM- THE ARYA MISSIONARY!

 

 

Pt Lekhram High resolution photo

6th MARCH – THE MARTYRDOM DAY OF  Pt.  LEKH RAM, THE ARYA MISSIONARY!

 By : KM Rajan

 Arya Samaj has moulded many great missionaries who were ready to do supreme sacrifice for the sake of Vedic dharma. Pandit Lekh Ram was one of the first among them.

Pt. Lekh Ram was born on 8th of Chaitra 1915 (1858)in the village Saiyad Pur in the Jhelum district of Punjab.  His parents were Sri. Tara Singh and Smt.  Bhag Bhari.

He was a police officer in Punjab and resigned from the government service voluntarily and devoted for propagation of Vedas even not caring for his family and only son too. He was influenced by the writings of Munshi Kanhaiya Lal Alakhdhari and came to know about Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati and Arya Samaj. He founded Arya Samaj at Peshawar (now in Pakisthan) and became a preacher of Punjab Arya Pratinidhi Sabha. He also vowed to write the authentilc life history of Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati.  For this purpose, he travelled far and wide and collected a detailed account of the life of the founder of Arya Samaj. Pt. Lekh Ram wrote thirty three books. All his writings are in Urdu, but they have been translated in Hindi and some books have been translated into Sindhi and English also.

He established the  view points on Arya Samaj and vedic religion so forcefully that nobody dared to come forward to oppose. Many inspiring facts from his life are written in golden lines of Arya Samaj history. A small incident from his life is being quoted here. He was an ardent propagator for Vedic dharma and shuddi (re-conversion to Vedic religion) movement. One day he returned to home after day’s long propagation work and was so tired. His wife told that their only son is very sick and if unable to take him to a doctor immediately, his life will be in danger. He understood the gravity of sickness of his son and promised to take him hospital after taking one Rotti as he was so hungry. When he was about to eat the Rotti, a post man carrying a telegram reached to him stating that few Hindus are about to change their religion to Islam in`Payal’ village in Patiala district of Punjab. Without thinking for a moment he left the meals and moved to the said village in a train. When he saw that there is no stoppage for train at the`Payal’ village, he jumped out of the running train and some how reached the venue of conversion with severe body injuries. He shouted `I am Pt. Lekharam from Arya Samaj is coming for Shasthrarth (religious debate) with you. If you defeat me in arguments, I myself along with these poor Hindus will embrace Islam. Otherwise you all should accept Vedic dharma. In the end of the shasthrarth all embraced Vedic Religion. This time one another telegram reached to him. The matter of it was his only son died of sickness! That was the dedication of Pt. Lekharam!

This great son of mother India was died from the stab wounds of a fanatic inflicted upon him on 6th  March 1897.  Let us take inspiration from this immortal martyr on the occasion of his death anniversary (6th  March) for fulfilling the vision of `Krinvantho viswamaryam’