Rules and Svaras which are also of Use in the interpretation of the Vedic mantras.
The svaras are of two kinds and each of them is again subdivided into seven classes as Udatta, Shadja, etc. We shall now give their definitions according to the grammarian Patanjali, the author of the Mahabhashya. The svaras are those which can be pronounced by themselves. In speaking loudly the bodily organs are strained, the throat is contracted and the voice becomes harsh. In speaking softly the bodily organs are relaxed, the throat is expanded and the voice becomes soft and smooth. In speaking we pronounce the svaras in three ways, viz., either as Udatta (high) or as Unudatta (low) or as Udatta-undatta (neither high nor low).
As a thing having the white color is called white, and one having a black color is called black and a third one which partakes of the characteristics of both white and black is called gray so a Svara which has the quality of Udatta is called Udatta, that having quality of Unudatta, Unudatta, and that which has the qualities of both, Svarita.These become seven when they are raised to
a higher or softened down to a lower tone as Udatta, Udatta-tara, Unudatta, Unudatta-tara, Udatta-svarita and EkashrutiMaha I.2.
This is the commentary on the Ashtadhyayi I. 2. 29. The Svaras are seven, Viz.,Shadja, Rishabha, Gandhaara, Madhyama, Panchama, Dhiavata andNishada. Pingala III. 64. For their definition and rules governing them.
One should consult the books on the musical science.
We have now completed this brief Introduction which brings to light the meaning and the purpose of the Vedas in a clear, lucid and beautiful manner. It will fulfill the desire of, those who will peruse it. It is a treasure-house in which are contained the explanations of purifying subjects.
It is supported by the quotations of the Satyashastras. After this we take in hand the writing of the Vedic Commentary which is supported by good proofs with intelligent devotion to the Lord.
Let the wise take note that we shall observe the following order in the commentary. First we shall give a brief introduction to explain the meaning of the mantra, then the mantra itself, and then its component words. This will be followed by the meaning of the words arranged in the prose order and the last of all will come the purport of the mantra.
OM VISHVAANIDEVA SAVITUR DURITAANI PARAASUVA YADBHADRAM TANNA AASUVA.
O Radiant Divinity, Creator of the universe remove all evil from us and endow us with all that is noble.
Finish is the introduction to the four Vedas, the Rig, etc., by the Paramahansa Parivrajak acharya Shri Swami Dayanand Saraswati, which is adorned with Sanskrit and Aryabhaasha and is supported by good proofs