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FROM VEDIC TO CLASSICAL SANSKRIT (DEVELOPMENT OR DECAY)

development or decoy

FROM VEDIC TO CLASSICAL SANSKRIT (DEVELOPMENT OR DECAY)

Author : Pt Dharmdev Vidyamartand 

Three is a word of difference between the Vedic language and the Classical Sanskrit of the epics, sastras, kavyas….. At times the meaning of a word may undergo a sea change !

IN TERMS OF WORDS

The word sachí for instance, is used in the classical Sanskrit for ‘lndra`s wife’, whereas in the Vedic Lexicon Nighantu, it is en-joined for ‘speech, wisdom, action’ (vide Nigh.)-

shachi

The words vrtra, asum are used in Sanskrit as the name of a Raksasa (and for ‘raksasa‘ in general), but in Vedic they are two epithets, usually, of ‘cloud’-

vrutra

The word ‘ahí‘ is used in Sanskrit for serpent, while in Vedic, it stands for cloud again.

ahi

The word adri, parvata, giri are used in Sanskrit for mountain, but in Vedic they again denote cloud-

varah

The word ghrta is used in Sanskrit for clarified butter, in Vedic for water-

ghrutam

In Sanskrit, the word visa is used for poison but, according to the Vedic Nighantu, it is one of the many names ofwater-

vish

ln Sanskrit, the Word varaha is used for ‘boar’, but in Vedic it is given for cloud-

varah

In Sankrit asman and gravan are used for stone, but in Vedic they are shown as denoting cloud-

ashma

The word dhara is used in Sanskrit for flow or current but in Vedic it is used for speech-

dhara

The word ghrtací is used in Sanskrit for dancing girl, but in Vedic it denotes night-

ghrut

The word gaya is used in Sanskrit for a particular place where oblations are offered, but in the Vedic Nighantu, gaya means progency, wealth, home.

gaya

IN TERMS OF GRAMMAR

On the score of grammar, Vedic naturally differs from Classical Sanskrit in extension as well as in depth. Panini’s Astadhyayi refers to this vedic freedom of scope through aphorisms like.

bahulam

bahulam 1

Quite a few among Western linguists and philosophers hold that there has always been a growth, a development and an evolution in language :

T. Burrow, for instance, says in Sanskrit Language, “Many [of the changes of meaning] occured in the natural growth of the language.”

F. Bopp, in Comparative Grammar 0f Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Other Languages, vol. l, has used the word ‘development’, in this connection; “[Of] language in its Stages of being and march of development.”

A.B. Keith has also opted for the view ‘development’, saying: “From the language of the Rigveda one can trace a steady development to Classical Sanskrit.” (History of Sanskrit Literature.)

Some Indian philologists, too, who have followed Western Writers, have held the same view. For instance : “From the cry and onomatopoeia with their various combinations, by means of association and metaphor, we arrive at a Vocabulary, sufficient for the purpose of the primitive man”…”The small original stock is improved upon and added to by manipulation of various kinds, based upon the association of various kinds, and on metaphor”.

But, when we compare the most ancient Vedic language with the modem Classical Sanskrit, we find that, instead of ‘growth’ or ‘development’, there has been ‘decay’.

For instance : (1) in the Vedic Lexicon Nighantu, at 1.2 we find 57 synonyms of vac (speech) like-

shlok 1

shlok 2

Very few of them have survived in classical Sanskrit : Amara Kosa, for instance, gives only the following-

brahmi

lt is growth or decay ? Let the reader on his own decide.

To give yet another illustration, in Vedic 101 names are listed for ‘water’, including-

jambh

But in the Amara Kosa only 27 remain ;

 

 

aapah

There are 37 names of megha (cloud) in Nighantu, in the Amara Kosa only 15-

grava

Among the 26 names of karma (action, work), including-

ambh

-only 2 (karma and karyam) are found in the Amara Kosa.

Many more examples could be given to show how, down the centuries, it has not been a case of growth or development, but rather one of decay in language.

lt is gratifying to note that some distinguished western linguists also are opposed to this theory of growth or evolution in language. We cite four of them :

V. VENDRYES in his book Language observes :

‘Certainly, modern languages, such as English and French, rejoice in an extreme suppleness, ease and flexibility; but [accordingly] can we maintain that the classical tongues, like Greek or Latin, are inferior to [any of these] ? It [Greek] is a language whose very essence is godlike.. If we have once acquired the taste for it, all other languages seem harsh after it… The outward form of the Greek language is itself a delight to the soul. Never was a more beautiful instrument fashioned to express human thought.

WILLIAM JONES : ‘The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure-more perfect than Greek, more copious than Latin, and more exquisitely refined than French or Spanish.’

MAX MULLER : says they have reduced the rich and powerful idiom of the poets of Veda to the meagre and impure jargon of the modem sepoy’.

He adds : “We are accustomed to call these changes ‘growth’ of language, but it would be more appropriate to call this a process of phonetic change or decay. ”

‘On the whole, the history of all the Aryan languages is nothing but a gradual process of decay.’

‘Lecures on the Science of Language, vol.l

And GRAY, lastly, has to say this (Foundations of Language) :

‘In lndo-European, we find 8 distinct case-forms in Sanskrit; Greek and Lithuanian have 7, Hittite and Old Church Slavic 5, Old French and Modem English only 2, Albanian 4. And American and Old English 3. This reduction in the number of case-forms-with  the result that some of them take over the functions of one or more others-gives rise to the linguistic phrase now known as syncretism. The reason for this seems to be phonetic decay of the characteristic case-endings.’

‘the mother of languages’

VEDIC-THE MOTHER OF ALL LANGUAGES

From the study of many of the historical languages of the world we have been driven to the inevitable conclusion that it is not Classical Sanskrit (which of course is the first daughter of the mother), but Vedic, that is the mother of all languages of the world.

A FEW EXAMPLES

1. Vasra-in Vedic and, in its slightly different or corrupt forms, in different languages of the world :

The word [vasra] has been used in the Rigveda on the following occasions-vasra 1O.119.4; vasra’iva 1.33.2, 1.28.8; 2.34.15; 7.149.4; 1.37.11, 1.96.6; 6.7.7, 9.1.37, 10.75.4.

In the other Vedas also the word is used frequently. All commentators of Veda are unanimous in holding that the word is derived from V vasr ‘sabde‘ and stands for cow (lowing, ‘making sound’.

vashra

Now, it is to be noted that there is no mention of this word in the Amara Kosa, or in any other lexicon of Sanskrit; nor do we find it generally used in the classical literature. Withal, the word is used for `cow’ in the French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian languages in slightly different (corrupt) forms.

ln French it is vache; in Spanish vaen : in Portugese vaca ; and in Italian la vaces. [Also, likewise, in the languages of Europe the words derived from go are used for English cow : Swedish ko ; Danish ko ; Dutch koe ; German kuh].

2. To take another example, we may examine Vedic ‘irman ‘ for ‘arm’.

lt is from this (irman) alone that the word ‘arm’ is derived. With its Swedish, Danish, Dutch and German variants in COD, for Apisali states in his Siksa (as also Bharate in his Natyasatra) that ‘sarva-mukha-sthaniyan a-varnam’ ! agni : ignis (Lat.).

3. Another very common word, which may be mentioned in this connection, is dama. According to Nighantu 3.4, it is a grhanama (home)-

jaaya

But in Sanskrit literature and in classical lexicons, like the Amarakosa, dama occurs nowhere in the sense of ‘home’ or ‘wife.’

And so we should not be surprised to find the word, with slight changes, used in several languages of Europe-English, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, German in the sense of ‘lady’ : dame, dane, dem.

4. mira (ocean) ‘submarine fire’ and also vadavagni ! ; German meer ; French la mer ; Spanish and Portugese mar.

5. apa’ ítí-‘karma’-nama (Nighantu. 2.1) ; opus (Latin), operation (English).

These five exmples should suffice to show that Vedic is the most ancient-and accordingly, the mother-of all languages.

MULTIPLICATION OF LANGUAGES

lf, Vedic is the universal mother (or foster-mother as some would like to call it), the question naturally arises : how these hundreds and thousands of languages and dialects have sprung up from that one source. How to explain their multifurcation ?

The answer may be briefly given as follows (taking into consideration what native and foreign scholars have written on the subject) Some probable causes suggested are :

PROBABLE CAUSES

(l) Physiological causes– when some people cannot pronounce some difficult sounds on account of some defect in the anatomy;

(2) Geographical surroundings-sometimes making it difficult to pronounce words correctly (due to severe cold.);

(3) Communication and Correspondence (difficulties)- people of distant lands also sometimes cause pidgin-like change(s) in the language and its pronunciation ;

(4) Change of model-e.g., a new king may ascend the throne and his subjects begin copying his style ;

(5) Association-also causes change,

Examples

yasya

(6) Analogy-is defined (by Vendryes) as “the power of other words in a languages to exempt any special word from the operation of phonetic laws or to compensate it for changes which those laws may press or produce.”

0ne clear instance of this change by analogy is cows. ln Old English it was spelt (inflected) as kine ; but, as table, book, boy and other words are formed by just adding an “s” at the end, so the plural of cow also became cows-(though foot did not become foots such as.

(7) Economy of effort-with regular vagaries-

(a) varna-viparyaya or ‘metathesis’ :

budhe

(b) varna-lopa (dropping out of a letter, usually owing to inadvertence) :

chaturiya

(c) samikarana-(assimilation) :

yasya 1

cf. Edward Sturtivant (Introduction to linguistic Science : “Of great linguistic importance is the assimilation of contiguous consonants”

(d) viprakasa-(dissimilation) :

mukur

(e) svara-bhakti (hiatus) :

bhawati

(f) agro’pajana-(prothesis)

school

(g) sthana-viparyaya-(interchange) :

signal

The following verse, quoted by Durgacarya in his ‘gloss’ on the Nirukta(Ch. 1), gives in brief most of these ‘rules’ :

varno

(1)    pro/epen/post-thesis ; (2) interchange ; (3) distortion ;

(1)(4) elision; (5) ‘sense suggesting = engendering another sound!’.

(1)In various fonns of P/’akrta and in English, Greek, Latin,Russian and other languages ‘changes’ have taken place according to the above ‘rules’. It is thus that words actually become corrupt and new languages spring up. Defective and imperfect scripts also have helped in the distortion of a ‘pure` language no less :

(1)In Tamil (script) there are only k and n ; c and n ; t and n ; t and

(1)n ; p and m. [In Arabic script there is no p.]

(1)In English there is no provision for t, th, d dh, n ;

(1)In French there is no room for t, th, d, dh, n.

PASTO & SANSKRIT

Pashto is the language spoken by Pathans and allied tribals of the North-Western Frontier. The author learnt from a letter, received from the Vice-Chancellor of Peshawar University, some years back, that “here Sanskrit is compulsory for all students of languages, as it is thought here, said the letter that, abounding in Sanskrit Vocabulary as it is, Pashto cannot be mastered without a good

grounding in Sanskrit.”

Following is the list of some Sanskrit words, with their Pasto variants, to stress the point :

sanskrit

sanskrit 1

Also, for ‘grandfather’ the Pashto is Nikoh-derived from ‘niskrodha’-free from anger and, therefore., loving ; likewise, for grandmother anniya ‘anna-datri“,? But, we are just suggesting ; nothing more.

SANSKRIT & SOUTH INDIAN LANGUAGES

There are some words in the South Indian languages, which have their origin in Sanskrit.

On studying Kasakrtsna-Dhatupatha-Vrtti with the gloss of Channa-Vira Kavi, we have come to know of these ‘suspected origins’ ever more clearly-ever more surely. It should be borne in mind that Kasakrtsna had been a South-Indian grammarian centuries before Panini, recording some 800 more roots, i.e., in addition to the 2000 found in Panini !

(1) amma / avva, tayi-mother : These are the words used for ‘mother’ in different parts of the country.

Of these amma-(1) is considered by some a corruption of ‘amba’ ; but according to Kasakrtsna’s Dhatupathavrtti, it is derived from V amm ‘gatau’ (1.224) ; avva (2) from V avv-bandha-ne-palane (1-226) ;t’yt (3) from V tayr, ‘santana-palanayon’(1.493).

[In Tamil the word used for mother, tadar, too appears to have come from the same root] In Marathi, the word used for ‘mother’ is dyt V ay gat au (1.485)

(2) appa = pitar (in Kannada, Tulgu and some other South Indian languages) from V app palane !

(3) ammi-putrí from V amm gatau (Kannada).

(4) akka ‘elder sister’ (Kan.) from V akk bandane + palane.

(5) atta, mother-in-law ; attika, sister-in-law (Kan.) from V at gatau.

(6) appa-‘elder brother’ (Kan.) from V ap sabde (1.206).

(7) nathi, dog (Kan., Tam.) from V nin ‘prapane’.

(8) dana, animal (Kan.) from V dhan ‘calane’.

(9) hana = wealth, woman (Kan.) from V han sabde. (niskasya dasamo bhagah.)

(10) duddu, money (Kan.) from V duddu dharane.

(11) gíni, parrot (Kan.) from V gin sabde.

(12) gande, wall (Kan.) from V gadi bandhane.

(13) vayí, mouth (K. and Ta.) from V vay gatau.

(14) ane, hand (K., Ta.) from V an prapane.

(15) avu, cow (Tel.) from V av palane. cf. ava-ni=’gau’ (earth)!

(16) nalla, good (Tam.) from V nall palane.

(17) ganda-pati, husband (Kan.) from V gadí vadaníkadese (sahayyam karoti)-cheek-by-j owl.

(18) guli, bull (Kan.) from V gul bhaksane.

(19) gulle, bubble, foam (Kan.) from V gull bhavane(vivarte).

(20) hammu, pride (Kan.) from V hammu gatau (brain-wave)

(21) pandu, fruit (Tel.) from V padí gatau.

(22) jenu, honey (moon face ?), Kan. from V jin sambhaktau !

(23) channa, honey, fair lady (Kan. et al) from V cann sambhaktau!

(24) havu, serpent from V havva (ghost) Kan.

(25) hedi, coward (Kan) from V hedr calane ?

VEDIC AND THE REST

Comparative lists of words of different European languages clearly establish the affinity of these languages to Sanskrit. The question remains to be answered is : what relationship Sanskrit bears to the different languages of the world ? Is it Sister/aunt/mother of them? It is here that scholars widely differ. Max Muller : “Sanskrit, no doubt, has an immense advantage over all the other ancient languages of the East. lt is so attractive and has been so widely admired that it almost seems at times to excite a certain amount of feminine jealousy.. We are ourselves lndo-Europeans. In a certain sense we are still speaking and thinking Sanskrit ; or, more correctly, Sanskrit is like a dear aunt to us and [vasudhaiva kutumbakam] she [responsibly] takes the place of a mother who is no more. [Chips from a German Workshop] vol. 5.

It (Sanskrit) is the most regular language known, and is especially remarkable-as containing the roots of the various languages of Europe-Greek, Latin, German, Slavonic, says Baron Cuvier in Lectures on the Natural Sciences.”

And here is what Adelung has to say in “Sanskrit Language”. “The great number of languages, which are said to owe their origin – or bear a close affinity-to Sanskrit, is truly astonishing and-is yet another proof of the latter’s high antiquity. Rudiger avers it to be the parent of upwards of a hundred languages and dialects among which he enumerates l2 Indian, 7 Median Persic, 2 Austric Albanian, 7 Greek, 18 Latin, 14 Slavonic, and 6 Celtic Gallic. The various vocabularies, which we now possess as a result of laborious and learned investigations, render it pretty evident that Sanskrit has not only furnished words for all the languages of Europe, but forms a main feature in almost all those of the East. A host of writers have made it the immediate parent of the Greek and Latin and German families of languages [no less]

Bopp in Edinburgh Review, vol. 33, expresses his opinion that “At one time, Sanskrit was the one languages spoken all over the world.”

And lastly, to quote from W.C. Taylor’s “India in Greece” :

It was an astounding discovery that Hindustan possessed a language of unrivalled richness and variety, a language the parent of all those dialects that Europe has fondly called classical-the source alike of the Greek flexibility and the Roman strength, a philosophy compared with which lessons of Pythagoras are but of yesterday [in point of age, in point of enduring speculation], Plato’s boldest efforts [sound] tame and commonplace…a poetry more purely intellectual than any of which we had before any conception, and a system of science whose antiquity baffles all powers of astronomical calculations. This literature, with all its colossal proportions, which can scarcely be described with-out [a] semblance of bombast and exaggeration, claims of course, a place for itself-it stands alone, [has been] able to stand alone. Its literature seems exhaustless. The utmost [of] stretch-of-imagination can scarce comprehend its boundless mythology. Its philosophy, far from shunning, has touched upon every metaphysical difficulty [and has much to contribute on each and every issue].

lt is, thus, clear that many impartial linguists and philologists of the West also admit that Sanskrit is the mother (not sister or aunt) of all the important languages of the world. It is unfortunate that, even in India, not much attention is being paid to the study and spread of Sanskrit either by the people or by the Government. It is high time the study of Sanskrit is made compulsory at schools and in colleges, throughout the country.

 

Making of Bharat According to Vedas By Subodh Kumar

AEL Maurya

Bharat varsh according to Vedas.

वेदों के अनुसार भारत देश.
राजा द्वारा भारत देश निर्माण
गौ ,शिक्षा और राजा के आचरण, इन तीन का राष्ट्र निर्माण मे महत्व
Making of Bharat Desh RV5.27

ऋषि:- त्रैवृष्ण्याष्ययरुण:,पौरुकुत्सस्त्रसदस्यु:, भारतोश्वमेधश्च राजान: ।
अग्नि:, 6 इन्द्राग्नी। त्रिष्टुप्, 4-6 अनुष्टुप्।
ऋषि: = 1. त्रैवृष्णा:= जिस के उपदेश तीनों मन शरीर व आत्मा के सुखों को शक्तिशाली बनाते हैं
2. त्र्यरुण:= वह तीन जो मन शरीर व आत्मा के सुखों को प्राप्त कराते हैं
3.पौरुकुत्स त्रसदस्य: = जो राजा सज्जनों का पालक व तीन (दुराचारी,भ्रष्ट , समाज द्रोही)
दस्युओं को दूर करने वाला
4. राजान भारतो अश्वमेध: ;
भारतो राजान: – राजा जो स्वयं की यज्ञमय आदर्श जीवनशैलि से प्रजा को भी यज्ञीय
मनोवृत्ति वाला बना कर राष्ट्र का उत्तम भरण करता है .
अश्वमेध: – अश्व- ऊर्जा और मेधा- यथा योग्य मनन युक्त आत्म ज्ञान को धारण करने वाली
परम बुद्धि

इन्द्राग्नी = इन्द्राग्नि: = उत्साह और ऊर्जा से पूर्ण सदैव अपने लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने मे विजयी व्यक्ति Have fire in their belly to be ultimate Doers

COWS’ role in Vision for Bharat varsh Nation

1. अनस्वन्ता सत्पतिर्मामहे मे गावा चेतिष्ठो असुरो मघोन: ।
त्रैवृष्णो अग्ने दशभि: सहस्रैर्वैश्वानर ष्ययरुणश्चिकेत ।।RV5.27.1
(गावा चेतिष्ठ:) गौओं से प्राप्त उत्तम चेतना द्वारा (सत्पति: ) सज्जनों के पालन के लिए भूत काल की उपलब्धियों के अनुभव के आधार पर वर्तमान और भविष्य के लिए (तीनों काल )(त्रैवृष्ण:)में शरीर, मन, बुद्धि तीनों को शक्तिशाली बनाने वाली (असुरो मघोन:) ऐश्वर्यशाली प्राण ( जीवन शैलि ) को (त्र्यरुण:) शरीर , मन और बुद्धि के लिए ज्ञान ,कर्म और उपासना द्वारा (दशभि: सहस्रैर्वैश्वानर) समस्त प्रजा की प्रवृत्तियों की धर्म अर्थ और काम की उन्नति के लिए (अनस्वन्ता) उत्तम वाहनों से युक्त समाज, (मामहे) उपलब्ध कराओ.
Excellent cows should be ensured to build physically healthy, peaceful and high intellectual society. Current and Future planning should be based on experience of past working results, to obtain excellent Health, Mentality and Intellect in the nation to provide for a prosperous life style. Such a nation is self motivated in following the path of righteous behavior, charitable disposition and God loving conduct in their daily life.
Among other things excellent infrastructure of communication, transport should be provided.
.

Hundreds of well fed cows
2. 2.यो मे शता च विंशतिं च गोनां हरी च युक्ता सुधुरा ददाति ।
वैश्वानर सुष्टुतो वावृधानोऽग्ने यच्छ त्र्युरुणाय शर्म ।। RV 5.27.2
3. (वैश्वानर) धर्म अर्थ और काम को प्राप्त कराने वाली ऊर्जा और (वावृधान: अग्नि:) निरन्तर प्रगति देने वाले यज्ञ (त्र्यरुणाय) शरीर, मन और बुद्धि के लिए सेंकड़ों गौओं और बीसियों उत्तम शकटों से (हरी:) जितेंद्रिय पुरुषों से –भौतिक साधनों और श्रेष्ठ समाज से युक्त हो कर (शर्म यच्छ) विश्व का कल्याण प्राप्त करो
4. Urge for continuous strong positive motivation based activities in individuals creates a prosperous, peace loving, healthy, self disciplined sustainable society with hundreds of cows and dozens of carts loaded with green fodder for cows for aorganic food, and good infrastructure base. Nation provided with such infrastructure has a society that is rich in physical resources, and has well behaved people for welfare of the world.

Planning in Nation

3. एवा ते अग्ने सुमतिं चकानो नविष्ठाय नवमं त्रसदस्यु: ।
यो मे गिरस्तुविजातस्य पूर्वीर्युक्तेनाभि ष्ययरुणो गृणाति ।।RV 5.27.3
तेजस्वी विद्वान प्रकृति के विधान और अनुभव से प्राप्त ज्ञान के उपदेशों की कामना करता हुआ सब वासनाओं से मुक्त समाज के निर्माण द्वारा भविष्य के लिए उत्तम नवीन समाज की आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ती और तीनो प्रकार तम , मन और आत्मा से सुखी समाज का निर्माण करता है और सब से ऐसी विचार धारा का सम्मान करने को कहता है.
Bright enlightened intellectual leadership seeks guidance from Nature the environment friendly and traditional empirical wisdom to build a hedonism free culture for the growing needs and aspirations of future generations. By honoring and propagating such wisdom only an ideal and happy society is evolved.
Education in Nation

4. यो म इति प्रवोचत्यश्वमेधाय सूरये ।
दददृचा सनिं यते ददन्मेधामृतायते ।।RV 5.27.4
(राजा का दायित्व है कि ) जो विद्वद्जन (राष्ट्र की उन्नति के लिए) समाज में ऊर्जा (भौतिक और आत्मबल ) के विस्तार और सत्य असत्य के निर्णय करने मे समाज को सक्षम करने के वेद विद्यानुसार उपदेश करते हैं,उन को सम्माननीय पद दे और उन का सत्कार करे.
For growth of the nation it is responsibility of King recognize, honor and promote intelligent teachers that develop the society by educating it in growth conservation of physical energies and their mental energies, with ability to discern truth from untruth.
Bulls make excellent Nation
4. 5. यस्य मा परुषा: शतमुध्दर्षयन्त्युक्षण: ।
अश्वमेधस्य दाना: सोमा इव त्र्याशिर: ।। RV5.27.5
5. (यस्य मा शतम्‌ उक्षण: परुषा:) जो मेरे लिए , सेंकड़ो क्रोध से रहित सधे हुए वीर्य सेचन में समर्थ उत्तम वृषभ और कठिन परिश्रम साध्य बैल, (त्रयाशिर:) तीनों – बालक, युवा, वृद्ध तीनों प्रजाजनों के लिए – राष्ट्र में (अश्वमेध-ऊर्जा और मेधा) – तीनों वसु (भौतिक सुख के साधन) रुद्र रोगादि से मुक्त,आदित्य सौर ऊर्जा के द्वारा, तीनों दूध,दही और अन्न (सोमा: इव) श्रेष्ठ मानसिकता तीन प्रकार से शरीर को नीरोग,मन को निर्मल बुद्धि को तीव्र बनाते और (दाना:)इन दानों से (उद्धर्ष्यन्ति ) उत्कृष्ट उल्लास का कारण बनते हैं .
Bulls that have excellent breeding soundness for providing excellent cows and oxen that are strong and mild mannered to provide power to the nation
Provide excellent health nutrition and intellect to all the three ie. infants youth and old persons with three bounties of happiness ie. Healthy environments, cheerfulness and solar energy by the three items of cows milk, curds and organic food to provide the three bounties of healthy disease free life, positive attitudes in life and sharp intellect to spread happiness all round.

6. इन्द्राग्नी शतदाव्न्यश्वमेधे सुवीर्यम् ।
क्षत्रं धारयतं बृहद् दिवि सूर्यमिवाजरम् ।।RV 5.27.6
उत्साह और ऊर्जा से पूर्ण सदैव अपने लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने मे विजयी, योग्य मनन युक्त आत्मज्ञान को धारण करने वाली परम बुद्धि से युक्त समाज, असङ्ख्य पदार्थों से सूर्य के सदृश उत्तम पराक्रम तथा बलयुक्त नाश से रहित महान राष्ट्र का निर्माण होता है.
Thus is created a Nation that is strong to protect itself from all destructive internal and external enemies, where the society consists of a prosperous, self motivated well behaved intelligent people.

Rigveda on prosperity through industry

rigveda and technique

Rigveda on prosperity through industry

Author :- Subodh Kumar 

Technological advancement  RV 1.20

ऋषि: मेधातिथी काण्व = कण कण कर के मेधा से उन्नति करने वाला

1.   अयं देवाय जन्मने स्तोमो र्विप्रेभिरासया 

अकारि रत्नधातम: ।। RV1.20.1

जो दिव्य जीवन की प्राप्ति के लिए ज्ञानियों के मुख से उत्तम दिव्य ज्ञान प्राप्त करते हैं.इस प्रकार उन का जीवन रमणीयतम तत्वों को धारण कर लेता है.

2.   य इन्द्राय वचोयुजा ततक्षुर्मनसा हरी 

शमीभिर्यज्ञमाशत ।। RV1.20.2

जो मन से विद्वानों के उपदेश के अनुसार अपनी  ज्ञानेंद्रियों और कर्मेंद्रियों दोनो से शिल्प कुशलता पुरुषार्थ शीघ्र कार्य सिद्धि  से निर्माण के कार्य करते हैं  जैसे शमी वृक्ष से स्रुवा बना कर यज्ञ के द्वारा   वे शांति पूर्वक उत्तम सुखमय व्यवस्था स्थापित करते हैं.

3.   तक्षन्नासत्याभ्यां परिज्मानं सुखं रथम् 

तक्षन् धेनुं सबर्दुघाम्  RV1.20.3

वे जन जल और अग्नि के साधनों से  उत्तम शिल्प विद्या द्वरा सब जनों के सुख के लिए आने जाने के सुंदर रथादि के निर्माण की व्यवस्था और उत्तम बुद्धि के लिए सुंदर दूध वाली गौओं को भी उपलब्ध करते हैं.

Bi-polar Strategies

4.   युवाना पितरा पुन: सत्यमन्त्रा ऋजूयव: 

ऋभवो विष्टयक्रत ।।RV 1.20.4

सत्याचरण और सरल स्वभाव युक्त  अपने कर्म करने वाले ऋभु  दो भिन्न  गुण वाले तत्वों भौतिक और सामाजिक दोनों क्षेत्रों में (जैसे जल और अग्नि, positive and negative , electromagnetism ) तथा समाज में युवा वर्ग और प्रौढ वर्ग, को कार्य सिद्ध करने में बरम्बार प्रयुक्त करते हैं.

Indiscipline science

5.   सं वो मदासो अग्मेतेन्द्रेण  मरुत्वता 

आदित्येभिश्च राजभि: ।।RV 1.20.5

वे विद्वान लोग, सूर्य, विद्युत, मरुतगणों ( माइक्रोबायोलोजी) की विद्या से सन्युक्त लाभ ले कर ऐश्वर्य और आनंद की व्यवस्था करते हैं.

Training and learning of science & Technology

6.   उत त्यं चमसं नवं त्वष्टुर्देवस्य निष्कृतम् 

अकर्त चतुर: पुन: ।। RV1.20.6

चतुराइ से शिल्पीजनों के द्वारा भौतिक साधनों के प्रयोग को देख कर सीखो और उन्नति शील बनो.

 

Significance of Science & Technology

7.   ते नो रत्नानि धत्तन त्रिरासाप्तानि सुन्वते 

एकमेकं सुशस्तिभि: ।। RV1.20.7

त्रिसप्ता रत्न- तीन लोक –(पृथ्वी, अंतरिक्ष,द्यौ )–तीन इन के अधिष्ठाता – (अग्नि, वायु, सूर्य) ,तीन गुण – (सत्व,रजस्व, तमस्‌),  त्रि देव – (ब्रह्मा, विष्णु, महेश)  इन के तीन कार्य- ( सृष्टि, स्थिति, प्रलय), तीन काल –  (भूत,वर्तमान, भविष्य) ,तीन दिष-(वात,पित्त, कफ) , तीन अवस्थाएं – (बाल्य,यौवन, जरा)

इसी प्रकार सात ऋषी: ( कश्यप , अत्रि, वसिष्ठ, विश्वामित्र, गौतम,जमदग्नि, भरद्वाज), सात वार – (रवि,चंद्र,मङ्गल, बुध, ब्र्हस्पति,शुक्र, शनि) ,सात मरुद्गण-(उग्र, भीम, ध्वांत, धुनि,सासह्वान्‌, अभ्युग्वा,विक्षिप), सात लोक- ( भू:, भुव: ,स्व:, मह:, जन:, सत्य), सात छंद- ( गायत्री,उष्णिक,अनुष्टुप,बृहती,पंक्ति, त्रिष्टुप, जगती), इन सब का तीन और सात से अर्थ बोध. सायण के अनुसार –( 12 मास,+5ऋतु, +3 लोक, +1 सूर्य=21) , अथवा (5 महाभूत+5ज्ञानेंरियां+5कर्मेंद्रियां +5प्राण +1अंत:करण=21)

इन सब में अच्छी अच्छी प्रशंसा वाली क्रियाओं से समस्त विद्या, सुवर्णादि धनों को अच्छी प्रकार धारण करें. 

8.   अधारयन्त वह्नयोऽभजन्त सुकृत्यया 

भागं देवेषु यज्ञियम् ।RV  1.20.8

इस बाह्य संसार में शुभ कर्म वा उत्तम गुणों को प्राप्त कराने वाले बुद्धिमान सज्जन श्रेश्ठकर्म से विद्वानों में रह कर यज्ञादि कर्मों से आनंद का निरंतर सेवन करते हैं.

Cow the economic angle

cow and economic

Cow the economic angle

Author :- By Subodh Kumar
India has the world’s oldest tradition of domestic Cow. Indians have learnt that bounties that cow offers have many facets that provide with sustainable economic and environmental security.
1. Pastures fed cows provide the lowest cost of producing milk.
1a. This milk is rich in CLA i.e. Omega 3 and Omega 6 that provide health and disease immunity to human body.
1b. This milk is also rich in Carotenoids the main antioxidants that ensure healthy eye sight.
1c. As these cows spend most of their time under sun their milk is rich in natural Vitamin D , and there is no need to fortify like the US and Canadian dairy milk with synthetic Vitamin D.
1d. Cow milk is the only source of essential Vitamin B12 for vegetarians.
Such cow’s milk enables cheapest method of obtaining a healthy disease free human body and saves tremendous expense involved in dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, vitamin D capsules.
2. Cow Urine finds many Ayurvedic medicinal uses. For common man most interesting use of cow urine has been developed by MGIRI ( Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Rural Industries ) at Wardha. Cow urine contains natural biocidal properties of phenol and carbolic acids. Research at MGIRI has standardized formulation of natural organic floor cleaner as a substitute for chemically formulated phenyl used in homes.
3. Cow dung has been used as a plaster for building rural houses, as the cheapest sustainable building material for houses. It also provides hygienic living.
4. 95% of phosphorus for Indian chemical fertilizer industry is imported at a cost of over 2 billion dollars. Cow Dung contains up to 0.4% phosphorus. Entire cow dung in India as fertilizer will not only reduce the requirements of pesticides in agriculture but also will save foreign exchange expense.
5. Traditionally in rural areas dried cow dung cakes are used as cooking fuel. India has been promoting biogas plants. Methane produced by cow dung is a global warming gas. Biogas plants harvest all the cow dung methane, for use as cooking fuel. This also prevents cow dung methane to aid in global warming.
6. Slurry produced by biogas plants contains all the soil nutrients including the most important component phosphorus. This is also the cheapest and sustainable soil fertilizer.
7. Cow slaughter has been a very emotional issue in India. When a cow is well looked after it can easily provide an average of 1500 liters of milk in one lactation period. But when cows are not well looked after the milk yield falls to very low uneconomic levels and all such cows get diverted to slaughter houses to provide cheap meat. No good cows are ever discarded for slaughter. It is matter for community to have the resources and skill to maintain cows in good health and be able to provide adequate milk for as many as ten lactations. Cow slaughter agitation will no longer be necessary. Productivity of a living cow is economically far higher than a slaughtered cow. In due course every born cow will meet natural death. Leather from such cows will be always available
8. As far as meat eating is concerned world has become wiser. Meat has the highest water foot print among all foods. Scientific community is of the opinion that meat eating will not be able to sustain food production for the growing population of the world. This is where Indian wisdom of vegetarian diet becomes relevant.
9. Latest researches have confirmed that Indian breeds of Cows are producers of A2 type milk that is considered safest for human health. A2 type milk enjoys high customer preference in world markets. US cross bred cows produce A1 type milk that has been associated with incidence of diseaesc such as obesity, diabetes, cancer heart trouble etc. Even Indian constitution provides for conservation of Indian breeds. Gujarat Govt. is the first in the country to stop cross breeding. Gujarat is also home to the best Indian breed of Gir cows and has become the largest exporter of milk abroad.

Caste system and Vedas

 

casteCaste system and Vedas

Author : By Subodh Kumar

Caste system is the biggest curse of our society. General impression that caste is sanctioned by Vedas is based on wrong interpretation of Vedas. The following Sookt from Rig Ved is submitted in support of this.
Varn Vyawasthaa
RV9.112
There is no sanction in Vedas of castes by birth system
वर्ण – ब्राह्मण, क्षत्री,वैश्य,शूद्र जाति यानी जन्म से नहीं होते
Nurturing of Talents
शिशुराङ्गिरस: । पवमान: सोम: ।
ध्रुव पंक्ति: ।इन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव
Refrain line is: Natural Talents may flower;
प्राकृतिक प्रतिभाओं का विकास हो.

Different temperaments;

नानानं वा उ नो धियो वि व्रतानि जनानाम् ।
तक्षा रिष्टं रुतं भिषग् ब्रह्मा सुन्वन्तमिच्छतीन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.1
Humans manifest different traits.
1. Work with Physical Objects; One has an inclination to be skilled with physical objects and techniques.
2. Work with living Objects; One wants to become a healer, a doctor to bring comfort by cure to others.
3. Work on Minds; One wants to be a learned person interested in bringing bounties of wisdom to others.
The motivating force in humans manifests in various forms, and needs to be nurtured accordingly. Natural Talents may flower

मनुष्य भिन्न भिन्न प्रकृति के हैं. कोई शिल्पकार – वस्तुओं के स्वरूप को सुधारने वाला बनना चाहता है; तो कोई वैद्य- भिषक बन कर प्राणियों के स्वास्थ्य मे सुधार लाना चाहता है; तो अन्य ज्ञान का विस्तार कर के समाज में दिव्यता की उपलब्धियों के लिए शिक्षा यज्ञादि अनुष्ठान कराना चाहता है.
इन सब प्रकार की वृत्तियों के विकास के अवसर उपलब्ध कराने चाहिएं. प्राकृतिक प्रतिभाओं का विकास हो.
Set up Different Avenues of Education

जरतीभिरोषधीभि: पर्णेभि: शकुनानाम् ।
कार्मारो अश्मभिर्द्युभिर्हिरण्यवन्तमिच्छतीन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.2
1. Different herbs, products from other living beings like feathers of a bird and such materials have medicinal properties; Set up avenues to study and teach about them.
2. Technologies can provide opportunities to generate wealth by intelligent working with minerals etc.; set up institutions for nurturing these talents.

1. भिन्न भिन्न जड़ी बूटियों, भिन्न भिन्न प्राणियों के अवयवों से अनेक ओषधियां प्राप्त होती हैं. इन के प्रशिक्षण अनुसंधान के साधन उत्पन्न करो.
2. खनिज पदार्थों इत्यादि से ज्ञान कौशल द्वारा धनोपार्जन सम्भव होता है. इन विषयों पर प्रशिक्षण अनुसंधान के साधन उपलब्ध कराओ.

Different Vocations

कारुरहं ततो भिषगुपलप्रक्षिणी नना ।
नानाधियोवसूयवोऽनु गा इव तस्थिमन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.3
I am a musician, my family (father& Son) are medical practioners healing diseases, my mother grinds corn to make our food. We all perform our duties to make our contribution to sustain the society, like a cow sustains us all.
मैं संगीतज्ञ हूं, मेरे पिता वैद्य हैं, मेरी माता अनाज को पीसती है. हम सब इस समाज के पोषण में एक गौ की भांति अपना अपनाअपना योगदान करते हैं.
Different predilections- भिन्न भिन्न रुचि

अश्वो वोळहा सुखं रथं हसनामुपमन्त्रिण: ।
शेपो रोमण्वन्तौ भेदौ वारिन्मण्डूक इच्छतीन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.4
A routine worker like a horse drawing a laden cart with good
master is contended. Another person wants to spend time among friends making merry. Yet another one has high libido and seeks female company. But natural talents must be developed to find opportunities for community development.
साधारण व्यक्ति एक घोड़े की भान्ति एक संवेदनशील स्वामी की सेवा में अपना भार वहन करने में सन्तुष्ट है. अन्य व्यक्ति मित्र मंडलि में बैठ कर हंसी मज़ाक में सुख पाता है. अन्य व्यक्ति अधिक कामुक है और स्त्री सुख की अधिक इच्छा करता है.
भिन्न भिन्न व्यक्तियों की भिन्न भिन्न वृत्तियां होती हैं. परंतु समाज में अपना दायित्व निभाने के लिए सब की प्रतिभाओं का विकास करना चाहिए.

Rigveda: Industrial Management & Training By Subodh Kumar

bhishma

 

 

RV1.5 Industrial Management & Training
Work place atmosphere
1.आ त्वेता निषीदतेन्द्रमभि प्रगायत |
सखाय: स्तोमवाहसः || RV 1.5.1, AV20.68.11
(स्तोमवाहसःसखाय:) आओ आप सब प्रशंसनीय गुणयुक्त कार्य करने में प्रवीण विद्वानों से मित्रभाव से सब मिल कर परस्पर प्रीति के साथ शिल्प विद्या को सिद्ध करने में, (आनिषीदत) एकत्रित हों,(इन्द्रम्‌ अभिप्रगायत) इंद्र के गुणों का उपदेश करें और सुनें कि जिस से वह अच्छी रीति से सिद्ध की हुइ शिल्प विद्या सब को प्रकट हो जाए , और उस से (तु एत) तुम सब लोग सब सुखों को प्राप्त हों .
Let all well in company of qualified competent persons gather in a harmonious friendly cooperative atmosphere, to learn and discuss for successful development of well produced products that bring comfort and welfare to everybody.
Useful & Harmful results
2. पुरूतमं पुरूणामीशानं वार्य्याणाम |
इन्द्रं सोमे सचा सुते || RV 1.5.2, AV20.68.12
(पुरुणाम्‌) आकाश से ले कर पृथिवी तक के सब असंख्य पदार्थों के साधक (वार्य्याणाम) अत्यंत उत्तम वरण करने योग्य सद्गुणों को (ईशानम्‌) रचने में समर्थ, परन्तु (पुरूतमम्‌) दुष्ट स्वभाव वाले जीवों के कर्मों के भोग के निमित्त और (इन्द्रम्‌) जीवमात्र को सुख दु:ख देने वाले पदार्थों के भौतिक गुणों का ( अभिगायत) उपदेश करो . और (तु सुते सोमे सचा) जो सब प्रकार की विद्या से प्राप्त होने योग्य पदार्थों के निमित्त कार्य्य हैं उन को उक्त विद्याओं से सब के उपकार के लिए यथायोग्य युक्त करो.
Find and learn about all physical objects from sky to earth and their properties that can be put to desirable use. And utilize the knowledge of the physical properties objects in nature for welfare of all. But also bring out and speak about the knowledge about the simultaneous harmful and cruel results.
Importance Knowledge –ज्ञान का महत्व
3. स घा नो योग आ भुवत्स राये स पुरन्ध्याम |
गमद्वाजेभिरा स नः || RV 1.5.3,AV20.69.1
सब पदार्थ विद्याओं के ज्ञान के उपयोग से निश्चय ही सुख प्रदान करने के लिए उत्तम समृद्धि के धन अन्न और आवागमन के साधन प्राप्त होते हैं.
Combination of (पुरंध्याम) multidiscipline knowledge (घा) definitely (आ भुवत) results in providing excellent bounties of food, public conveniences of travel for comfort.
सुरक्षा के नियम – Safety Code
4. यस्य संस्थे न वृण्वते हरी समत्सु शत्रवः |
तस्मा इन्द्राय गायत || RV 1.5.4,AV20.69.2
भौतिक पदार्थों और उन की प्रक्रियाओं के सम्भावित दुष्परिणामों के रोकथाम के लिए सुरक्षा के साधनों का प्रचार करो.
Explore and provide information & knowledge about the harmful properties of the physical objects and processes.
Importance of R&D अनुसंधान का महत्व
5. सुतपाव्ने सुता इमे शुचयो यन्ति वीतये |

सोमासो दध्याशिरः || RV 1.5.5,AV20.69.3
(सोमासो दध्याशिर:) अनुसंधान के ज्ञान से (सुतपाव्ने सुता) उत्पन्न हो कर सुख समृद्धि के साधनों की नदियां बह चलती हैं
(सोमासो दध्याशिर:) Results of Research and development (सुतपाव्ने सुता) creat a running stream of products & processes for wellbeing.
Make life comfortable सुखमय जीवन
6. त्वं सुतस्य पीतये सद्यो वृद्धो अजायथाः |
इन्द्र ज्येष्ठ्याय सुक्रतो || RV 1.5.6,AV20.69.4
संसार के पदार्थों के सुख को ग्रहण करने ले लिए विद्या आदि उत्तम ज्ञान से प्रेरित हो कर श्रेष्ठ अत्युत्तम कर्मों का अनुष्ठान करो
Reach the status of senior entrepreneur by utilizing the vast store of knowledge and technology to bring comfort and welfare in life of entire community. .

Aim of education शिक्षा का लक्ष्य
7. आ त्वा विशन्त्वाशवः सोमास इन्द्र गिर्वणः |
शं ते सन्तु प्रचेतसे || RV 1.5.7,AV20.69.5
जीवन को सुखदायी बनाने के लिए तुझ में उत्तम व्याख्यान के ज्ञान तथा प्रशिक्षण से अति तीक्ष्ण बुद्धि और कर्मठ प्रवृत्ति जागृत हो .
(गिर्वणः) By good lectures training (विशन्त्वाशवः सोमास इन्द्र ) fast thinking and action oriented temperament (शं ते सन्तु प्रचेतसे) should develop (आ त्वा) in you
8. त्वां स्तोमा अवीवृधन्‌ त्वामुक्था शतक्रतो |
त्वां वर्धन्तु नो गिरः || RV 1.5.8,AV20.69.6
उन्नति के लिए उत्तम ज्ञान और उपदेश की शिक्षा द्वारा तुम सेंकड़ों काम करने का यश प्राप्त करो
With excellent education, knowledge and training develop the reputation of a multitalented achiever.
Enjoy the infinite bounties of Nature
9. अक्षितोतिः सनेदिमं वाजमिन्द्रः सहस्रिणम |
यस्मिन विश्वानि पौंस्या || RV 1.5.9,AV20.69.7
संसार का समस्त भौतिक ज्ञान प्राप्त कर के प्रकृति की असन्ख्य उपलब्धियों को ग्रहण करों
(अक्षितोतिः) Based on knowledge of universal Truth (यस्मिन विश्वानि पौंस्या) by hard work in this physical world (सनेदिमं वाजमिन्द्रः सहस्रिणम ) share the infinite bounties for comfort and welfare . |

Honesty & Fair play
10. मा नो मर्त्ता अभि द्रुहन तनूनामिन्द्र गिर्वणः |
ईशानो यवया वधम्‌ || RV 1.5.10,AV20.69.8
राग द्वेष भेद भाव स्वार्थ से प्रेरित हम अपनी वाणी और व्यवहार से किसी भी जीवधारी का शोषण और अहित न करें
Motivated by greed, personal grudge and ego clash do not allow your conduct and speech to cause hurt or exploit anybody.

SOUL, MAGIC, GAMBLING & POLYGAMY ARE IN VEDAS ?

soul_body

SOUL, MAGIC, GAMBLING & POLYGAMY

Author : Pt Dharmadev Vidyamartand

Besides discussing the notions of transmigration of soul and theory of action, we will discuss in this chapter, whether there was magic, drinking, gambling, and polygamy during the Vedic Age.

TRANSMIGRATION OF SOUL

An impression is sought to have been created by the authors of the Vedic Age that the Vedic Aryas had neither definite knowledge of the transmigration of soul nor were they interested in its theoretical aspects.

For instance it is written in this book:-

“ As the Rigvedic Aryas were full of the “Joíe de viver” (joy of life), they were not particularly interested in the life after death, much less had they any special doctrines about it. We can, therefore , glean only a few notices of life beyond, that are scattered throughout the Rigveda. In our search for any reference implicit or explicit, to rebirth or transmigration, we come across only a few doubtful passages. According to R.V.1.164.30, the soul (Jivah) of the dead one moves in its own power; the immortal one having a common origin with the mortal one (the body). But this transmigration is not certain.”

“So we may conclude that only the germs of the conception of rebirth were there, and those developed either naturally or through the influence of ideas current among the original tribes with whom the Aryans came into contact”

But careful perusal of the text will show that there are clear references to soul and its transmigration in the Vedas.

In Rigvedas it is clearly stated that the soul which inhabits this ephemeral body, is eternal, permanent and true:

rig 6.9.4

(“Behold this (individual spirit) the first being which enjoys (consequence of his actions) as it is the immortal light placed within the mortal frame. That has manifested itself. This immortal soul is staying (in the body) while it seems growing with the growth of its body.”

The theory of rebirth also finds expression in the following mantra from the Rigveda:-

rebirth in rigveda

(May I have glance at the indestructible Lord of the sense organs (i.e. the individual soul) which ever walk, through the pathways of coming (birth) and departure (death); it traverses its path with its body and even without it and having covered itself with its actions (i.e. in accordance with its good and evil actions), it comes (takes birth) again and again in the various worlds.”

GOD AND SOUL

The relation of soul with God and difference between the two have been clearly enunciated in the following mantra:-

rig 1.64.20

(Like two birds, there are two spirits i.e. the finite and the Supreme which, knit with the bonds of friendship, reside on the same tree (of the material universe). One of the twain (i.e. the finite spirit)

enjoys the sweet ripe fruit (and also the bitter one) produced by his good or bad actions, whereas the other (i.e. the Supreme Spirit) simply looks all around without enjoying its fruitage.”

THE SOUL THROUGH THE AGES

There is clear description of the soul incarnating itself in different bodies according to one’s own actions:-

soul 1

“O individual soul! in accordance with thine actions, thou assumes the form of a woman and that of a man, sometimes thou becomes a virgin, thou walkest with the help of 21 staff when thy body becomes old and frail, thou takest birth again and again as thy face is turned towards all directions (in accordance with thy actions).

soul 2

(This individual soul, sometimes it becomes their father and sometimes their son too, and sometimes becomes their elder brother and sometimes it even becomes their younger brother. Verily, the one self of luminous soul dwelling within the mind, has taken birth before and verily it again enters the womb of the mother.)

soul 3

(O God of life, please give us eyes again in our future life and give us breath, in this world and confer on us all necessary objects of enjoyment; O most Gracious Being! May we see the rising sun for  a long time, be kind upon us and give us blessings,)

In the following mantra from Yajurveda (4. 1 5), a devotee plays to God for a good life in the birth to come:

yajurveda 4.15

(May I receive, through the grace of God, my mind again in future life, may I have life again, may I get breathe again, may my soul return again and may I be the possessor of eyes and ears again in future life; may Self Refulgent God, keep us safe from misfortune and dishonor.)

In Atharva Veda, the use of स उ जायते पुन: most certainly confirms the Vedic theory of transmigration of soul:

soul 4

(The individual soul wanders within the womb of mother and takes birth again and again in bodies of intelligent persons. It exists in past, present and future; when it becomes a father, it again enters into the body of a son with the powers of his actions.)

Reproduced below are two mantras from Atharveda in this connection:-

soul 5

(May the earth give us birth again and may the shining heavenly region and the atmosphere restore the same to us; may Soma, All Creating God, give us body again (after our death) and may the All Nourishing God, lead us on the path of peace and happiness.)

And also:-

soul 6.1

soul 6.2

(May I again receive my sense organs in my future life and may I receive my spirit, together with worldly possessions and knowledge Divine so that I may perform fire-offering on the altars and may ever attain prosperity.) `

THEORY OF ACTION

In Vedas there is a great emphasis on action and industry. lt is clearly mentioned in the vedas that one cannot achieve progress and prosperity through mere performance of yajnas, singing euologies to God or offering prayers to him.

The Vedic Age, however, seeks to create an impression that devotees have been instructed in the Vedas to seek more and more gifts from God by flattering songs and ritualistic sacrifices.

But this is not true. For instance, it is clearly mentioned in the Rigveda that God never befriends a person Who avoids hard work or industry :

rig 4.33.15

ln Yujurveda, there is clear instruction to desire a long life full of action:

soul in yajur

PRAYERS FOR PURITY

In Vedic Age, very serious allegation has been made against the Rishis :-

“Absence of evil is not what they pray for. Their supreme desire is to triumph over poverty and resistance”

In the 97th  hymn of the First mandala of the Rigveda, there are 8 mantras, each of which ends with अप न: शोशुचदघम (O God destroy our sins). Some of these mantras are reproduced below:-

prayer 1

(O God, may we become yours. Destroy our sins.)

prayer 2

(May with Thy mercy, O Omnipresent Lord, all our sins be destroyed -may we never commit sins again).

prayer 3

(Just as sea is crossed through ship, may we cross this miserable world through Thy Grace – May our sins be destroyed.)

POLYGAMY AND VEDAS

Of many misconceptions about the Vedas propagated by the authors of Vedic Age, one pertains to polygamy.

It is written in the Vedic Age:-

“The Rigveda certainly permits polygamy, though monogamy may have been the rule. Whether monogamy developed from polygamy in the Rigvedic Age as Zimmer thinks in “Altindísche Leben “, or whether polygamy is secondary as Weber believes in “Indische Studeíern” cannot be decided-Probably polygamy, though allowed, was practically confined to the “Rajanya” class. Polyandry is not referred to anywhere in the Rigveda.”

It may be stressed that monogamy is considered best in the Vedas. Some of the mantras indicating this ideal have also been referred in the Vedic Age which also acknowledges that monogamy was the rule though polygamy was allowed. For instance, in Rigvedas 1.124.32 and 1O.74.4  जायेव पत्य उशती सुवासा: means knowledge reveals itself to the scholars, just as a woman draped in her best attire, presents herself before her husband. It may also be mentioned here that the words जाया and पत्या are both singular in number and, therefore, clearly indicate monogamy.

In the following mantra from the Rigveda God has been compared to a “chaste woman” of a noble character :

rigvedic god

(He who is like the sun, the supporter of the universe, who abides on earth like a king with good friends, who is like heroes at home- and who is like the irreproachable Wife, beloved of her husband.)

In the following mantra from Rigveda, one of the four comparisons which have been made to express a devotee’s desire for God to turn to him is that of a husband for wife :-

rigveda god 1

“As kine turn to the Village, as warriors to their steeds, as loving milk-giving cows to their calves, a husband to the Wife, so may the Deity, the Upholder of the heavens, Lord of all Bliss, turn towards us”.

In the hymn about marriage in Rigveda (10.85.30) a bride is enjoined to work for the happiness and pleasure of her husband :-

rig 10.85.30

(Shining like the sun, oh, bride, full of tapas, ascend this chariot and go to thy husband”s home to add to His pleasure and happiness.)

In the following mantra, the bride has been blessed to live with her husband and never be separated :

rigveda god 2

(May you always live together happily in your home-may you lead a happy, prosperous married life.)

In the following mantra both husband and wife make a declaration that their hearts will be united with each other like water which is cool and peaceful.)

rigveda god 3

ln the following mantra, the Wife says to her husband :

rigveda god 4

(Establish me firmly in your heart. May our hearts be united.)

rigveda god 5

(May you be mine entirely. May you never even praise other women in my presence.) ‘

The following mantras may also be quoted in support of this Vedic ideal of polygamy :

rig 14.2.64

In these mantras also, there is an instruction to the couples to love each other like “chakva-chakvi ” (love birds) and use sweet words for each other.)

Because of a few similies in the Rigveda, the authors of the Vedic Age have tried to establish the existence of polygamy during the Vedic period which is very erroneous. A large number of quotations against polygamy in the vedas render such interpretations infructuous.

For instance, take the following mantra, in which a person, tortured by the worldly agonies, has been compared to a person annoyed or troubled by co-wives :-

cowives

And also in the following mantra, it is written that a person, having two wives, is pressed from both sides like a neighing horse driving a chariot which is pressed between two spokes :-

two spokes

While there is provision for only one marriage in the Vedas, in exceptional cases, “Niyoga” (temporary alliance of wife with a stranger), is permitted with a limited purpose.

GAMBLING/ DRINKING IN THE VEDIC PERIOD

Vedic Age describes dice playing as one of the principal amusements of the Vedic period. It says :-

“Dice was another amusement. The number of dice, the method of dice playing and the names of the throws are all described in detail in the various texts of this (Yajur Veda) period A ritual game of dice is played at the Agnyadheya and the Rajasuya  cennonies – so gambling is probably sought to be restricted by elevating racing and dicing to the rank of religious ceremonies.”

The book has, however, failed to mention where the details of dice playing have been given in Yajurveda. We cannot believe in what they say unless they produce some evidence in support of their contention. Such an evidence is impossible to produce. (because it is not there at all.)

Moreover there is another reason for not believing them because what they have said is quite contrary to the injunctions against gambling in the hymn l 0.34 of the Rigveda (which is entirely devoted to this subject). ln some of the mantras of this hymn, it is clearly stated that gambling bums the heart of a person like the charcoal which though apparently cool from outside, is potentially destructive.

lt is also said that the family members of a gambler-his parents, Wife, brother etc, also disown him when he runs into debt because of this game :

gambling 1

In the end there is clear instruction against gambling in the most unequivocal terms : अक्षौर्या दिव्य (O man, no gambling.)

A gambler is told that he would enjoy the blessings and pleasures of the family life only when he earns money by industry, by such work as agriculture :

agriculture

It there is a provision anywhere for gambling or dice playing on the occasion of some Yajnas, it should be considered only as an interpolation without the sanction or authority of the vedas; it is, therefore, unauthentic and without merit.

One might say that even a highly religious man like Yudhistira used to gamble. But does it go to prove that gambling is a meritorious thing? We may recall what Lord Krishna had told him: if he were in Dwaraka he would never have let him indulge in this game asserting that its consequences are disasterous :

mahabharat 5

mahabharat 6

In these shlokas he counts gambling among the four vices which destroy a man’s beauty and his wealth (the other three being women, hunting and drinking).

DRINKING

Vedas have clearly instructed against drinking in the same way as against gambling.

Among the seven vices (even one of which makes a man sinner) is also drinking :

drinking 1

Yaskacharya has described these seven vices as follows in Nírukta :

drinking 2

(Theft, corruption, killing of righteous persons, abortion, falshehood, repeating a bad action and drinking.)

In Rigveda there is a mantra which described how the men who drink do not feel ashamed even in undressing themselves and looking at each other in naked bodies.

drinking 3

Drinking and gambling have been described in Rigveda as actions which lead to अधर्म (unrighteousness).

drinking 4

In Atharva Veda (6.7O. 1) meat eating, drinking and gambling have been placed in the same category and described as condemnable and prohibited :-

drinking 5

It is alleged in the “Vedic Age” that the risis remained intoxicated under the influence of “soma” which was misunderstood as a kind of a liquor.

In fact, the word Soma सोम: which occurs in the following mantras stands for God, who is described as the producer of all herbs, water, firmament, earth, sky, fire, sun and air illuminator and Master of the whole universe and Omnipresent.

Addressing God a devotee says; “King of this entire Universe, O Lord, Thou who art, Omniscient and Knower of everything and Repository of all virtues and Father of all “devas° purify me :

drinking 6

Can even an idiot take the word “Soma ” for a herb or a medicine in this context? There is not an iota of doubt that this word has been used only for God because He alone is and can be Omnipresent, Omniscient and the Master of the universe.

While the word ‘Soma ‘ has been used for God, at times it is also meant to denote affectionate devotion to God which is coupled with the true knowledge of His attributes. For instance, in Rigveda’s 9.108.1, it is stated:

rig 9.108.1

Here ‘soma ` is described as spiritual intoxication induced by true devotion(इन्द्राय क्रतु वितभो ).

This spiritual intoxication is naturally different from the intoxication induced by liquor or drinks.

In Rigveda and Samveda, the word soma has been described thus :-

drinking 7

(This soma which is full of sweetness ( मधुमान) is purifier( पावक: ) inducer of virtues ( देवावी ) and destroyer of all impure sentiment’s ( अधं शंसहा )

lt is clear from the above that this soma is not used for simple liquor but Spiritual intoxication which results from devotion, knowledge and purification.

In the same Vedas, Soma has been invoked for purification, strength and intellects :

drinking 8

Such a description of the ordinary liquor, which pollutes the intellects, is quite incongruous.

The following mantra, which occurs both in the Rigveda as well as Samaveda, gives a very clear cut account of Soma :

drinking 9

(O, Soma, the Illuminater  and Purifier, Thou proclaim-est immortality for all.)

This mantra leaves in no doubt about the true meaning, rather nature, of Soma-which is a declaration of Conquest over death (i.e., immortality).

The following mantras, from Rigveda also confirms that besides God, the word “Soma` means spiritual intoxication :-

drinking 10

ln the above mantras the word `soma’ has been described as giver of Peace, purifier, born of Truth and embodiment of knowledge etc.

Hundreds of mantras can be quoted to prove that the meaning of the word ‘ Soma” as interpreted by contributors to the Vedic Age is completely wrong. Their contention that the Risis remained drunk all the times is, therefore, completely baseless.

||इति||