Many Muslims as well as Non-Muslims quote some verses from Qur’an which preaches peace, and Non-Violence, while discussing Violent teaching of Islam. These people simply copy-paste from some Islamic site, which is a very desperate move to prove Islam is a Peaceful Religion. In this article I’ll show the real meaning of those so-called peaceful verses, using their context and the historical reasons behind the revelation of those alleged peaceful verse of Quran.
But let us see first, what mainly Islamic sites say about Qur’an and Peace. “Islam as a religion is totally committed to peace and security. It views with great contempt, breach of peace, anarchy, rioting and terrorism. Muslims as Ummah are a peace-loving community. Jehad under Islam is allowed subject to certain conditions.” [Daroolum-Deoband]
One another site says, “The very word ‘Islam’ (from the Arabic silm) connotes peace. According to a tradition of the Prophet, ‘Peace is Islam’ (Al-Bukhari). This means that peace is one of the prerequisites of Islam. Similarly, a Hadith states: A Muslim is one from whose tongue and hands people are safe. One of the attributes of God described in the Quran is‘As-Salam’, which means peace and security.’ That is to say that God’s Being itself is a manifestation of peace. Indeed, God is Peace (Al-Bukhari). In the Quran divine guidance is likened to the paths of peace. (5:16)” [Islam 101]
Before I proceed I would like to clear one misconception of Muslims and the author of above quote. It is not necessary that a man named ‘Satyavan’, which literally mean ‘Observer of Truth’, is truthful. In very same way it hardly matters what the word ‘Islam’ means, because its teaching, practices and actions of Muslim are incompatible with its meaning, i.e. peaceful. Leave aside the hadith example for now, because it is said that those Hadiths contradicts Quran are unauthentic, so by end of article readers will be convinced that the above quoted Hadith is unauthentic.
So by the above example, we see what Islamic scholar say about Islam and Peace, I agree there are very few verse which can be interpreted as peaceful verse in Qur’an. The very common verse which Muslims quote to prove Islam is a peaceful religion is2:256, which reads:-
Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
This verse is usually quoted by Islamic scholar because it says ‘let there be no compulsion in religion.’ But this verse is not as peaceful as it sounds, and to prove it, let’s see the historical context of the verse. One of Islamic site explains this verse as following:-
The scholars explained that these two verses [10:99 and 2:256], and other similar verses, have to do with those from whom the jizyah may be taken, such as Jews, Christians and Magians (Zoroastrians). They are not to be forced, rather they are to be given the choice between becoming Muslim or paying the jizyah.
Other scholars said that this applied in the beginning, but was subsequently abrogated by Allaah’s command to fight and wage jihad. So whoever refuses to enter Islam should be fought when the Muslims are able to fight, until they either enter Islam or pay the jizyah if they are among the people who may pay jizyah. The kuffaar should be compelled to enter Islam if they are not people from whom the jizyah may be taken, because that will lead to their happiness and salvation in this world and in the Hereafter. Obliging a person to adhere to the truth in which is guidance and happiness is better for him than falsehood. Just as a person may be forced to do the duty that he owes to other people even if that is by means of imprisonment or beating, so forcing the kaafirs to believe in Allaah alone and enter into the religion of Islam is more important and more essential, because this will lead to their happiness in this world and in the Hereafter. This applies unless they are People of the Book, i.e., Jews and Christians, or Magians, because Islam says that these three groups may be given the choice: they may enter Islam or they may pay the jizyah and feel themselves subdued. ” [Source]
As we see in above explanation, that in verse 2:256, Allah is giving Non-Muslims a choice, between Islam or Jizyah, which Muslims say as ‘No Compulsion in religion’. If the above given explanation is true then we can’t say that this verse is peaceful. Many Islamic scholars also believe that Qur’an 2:256 is abrogated by Qur’an 9:5-6, which clearly says Muslims to fight and kill the polytheists, and leave them when they become Muslim. There is a Hadith recorded in Sahih Bukhari, which also supports Quran 9:5-6, which reads:-
Volume 1, Book 2, Number 25:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.”
So, we see that either the verse is abrogated by later revealed verse of sword, or does not mean the same which Muslims wants us to believe. Even the Sharia Law proves that, Muslims don’t practice this verse. Non-Muslims are not allowed to preach, build their House of Worship, or propagate their religion in Islamic country. [Source]
Another verse which is widely quoted by Muslims to prove that their religion support peace, and Non-Violence is Qur’an 109:6, which says:-
“For you is your religion, and for me is my religion.”
But when we look back into Historical Background of this verse, it again turns to be less polite verse, than it is said by Muslims. This verse was revealed when some Meccan leaders, Abu Jahl, Walid and others suggested compromise with Muhammad, and they said to Muhammad, that he can worship his God at the same time as the Meccan deities, or alternatively each year. [Historical Development of Qur’an, page 9]
They (Meccans) wanted peace from Muhammad, and wanted to create harmony among Muslims and Non-Muslims, but Allah instantly revealed this Chapter to reply those leaders, who demanded Harmony and Peace. So, as we see this verse is not peaceful, but was revealed to reply an offer made by Meccan leaders for peace.
Further regarding this verse, Ibn Abbas says:-
(Unto you your religion) of disbelief and ascribing partners to Allah, (and unto me my religion) Islam and faith in Allah. The verses of fighting then abrogated this and the Prophet (pbuh) did fight them’
So, even if we consider this verse peaceful, early Islamic scholars thinks says that this verse is abrogated, and prophet did fight those who did not accepted Islam.
The above quoted verse is followed by Qur’an 8:61, which says:-
And if they incline to peace, then incline to it [also] and rely upon Allah . Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Knowing.
Ibn Jalalayan in his explanation to this verse says:-
And if they incline to peace (read silm or salm, meaning, ‘settlement’), then incline to it, and conclude a pact with them: Ibn ‘Abbās said, ‘This has been abrogated by the “sword verse” [Q. 9:5]’; Mujāhid said, ‘This [stipulation] applies exclusively in the context of the People of the Scripture, for it was revealed regarding the Banū Qurayza; and rely on God, put your trust in Him; truly He is the Hearer, of words, the Knower, of actions.
So, again we reached to the same conclusion that even if handful of verses in Quran like 8:61, 2:256,109:6 etc are peaceful verses, but they are abrogated by Qur’an 9:5. Finally we can say that the Peaceful verses in Qur’an are of Meccan period when Muhammad had very less followers, so Allah did not dared to reveal violent verses, and most of peaceful verses in Qur’an is abrogated by the verse of sword which was last to be revealed when Muhammad became strong, then Allah commanded Muslims to kill Non-Believers, until they embrace Islam or pay Jizyah, and feel themselves subdued. [Qur’an 9:5 and 9:29]
So the answer to the question: Is there any peaceful verse in Quran?
Ans: There were few peaceful verses in Quran revealed in Meccan period when Muhammad hardly had 70 followers, but later when he formed a monstrous army of hooligans ,marauders and raiders, then eventually Allah the shock puppet of Muhammad abrogated all the peaceful verses with the violent ones, and ordered Muhammad and his army to kill those who dared to be different in religious views.
By Prof S.N. Pherwani
- The first Impression
That tall, commanding, noble figure, the Governor and Founder of the Gurukula, Mahaltma Munshiram – that was my first impression of Swami ji as I joined my work as profession at the Gurukul University, Kangri. Always accessible, affable, he had his own way to all human hearts that came in contact with him. Kula – Pita, the father of that family, the larger family of the teachers’ Home he had founded, he was such in fact and not only in name. The Brahmcharis as well as the workers could approach him at all times, lay their private and personal difficulties and distresses before them, and get soothing, satisfactory advice and aid from him. It was wonderful how he tried to mould the minds of this large mental progeny, to help their hearts and link their lives to larger ideals of service and sacrifice. His was a dedicated life, and his clarion call to all was to consecrate and dedicate their lives to service of the motherland.
- Deeper Significance
Gradually the deeper significance of his life dawned on me, here was a living example of the Aryan Hindu plan of life- the four stages of Brahmcharaya, the student stage, Grihastha, the stage of householder, Vanprastha, the stages of the retired forest dwelling public worker – enlarging and extending the range of his domestic duties, providing material, mental, moral and spiritual fare for the children of all around him, and finally enlargement of life even beyond this narrow institutional range- country wide all-embracing care of the untouchable, uncared for the forgotten out-caste brothers and sisters of our Motherland, I met him when he was in Vanaprastha stage. His vitality and learning before witness to the embodiment in him of Bram-charya ideals. His message how the Brahmchari stage of life was to be lived, was there planned out in full details in Gurukula Programme. I witnessed his detached domestic relationship, the way he behaved with his family members during his Vanaprastha. I learnt from his life what real Vanaprasth should be – a dedication to larger civic ends and regional regeneration, social sanitation and self-preparation for Sanyas, the widest conceivable sphere of human service, I witnessed how he gradually outgrew the Vanaprastha stage, his mental struggles to dissent age and detach himself from his dearest creation, the Gurukula, and render himself free for a still larger sphere of service. I saw his triumphant entry into Sanyas – as Swami Shraddhanand. My relations wihhim continued to be of the happiest. We met off and on the Bombay. IN the days of Satyagrah I remember how he was in raptures when discussing with me Thureaus doctrine of civil disobedience as he had just come back from Sabarmati, there in his life I saw the truth of the poet.
Grew old along with me,
The best is yet to be
The last of life,
For which the first was made
here were the two stages of Nivritti Marga, the spirit now using its earthly tabernacle its conserved and trained manhood and ripe experience of family life for larger regenerative ends. The Vanaprasthi Mahatma Munshiram the sanyasi Swami Shradhdanand are to me living realities the truth made visible of a glorious life plan for an all-round well lived life, May Arya Hindus all realize that at least the third quarter of a well lived life is for dedication to ends larger than the domestic for social and civic service and that beyond that lies further extensive of services and that beyond that lies further extension of service as true Sanyasi. Brahmcharya and sound education is the birth right of all sons and daughter of the should ordered self-controlled family life should be made possible for majority and that these thing should be we need revival of true Vanaprashta and Sanyas of the kind Swami Shradhanand exemplified in his life
- His crown of Martyrdom
He lived in our hearts and the “Happy Warrior” at last got his crowing close, a glorious end to a life gloriously lived. The tangible and visible the perishable part of Swami ji was shot through by a fanatic, but his invisible and permanent essence remains. His martyrdom brings to life his life ideals in the hearts of multitude. He lives in the hearts of millions of his countrymen and will continued to live and inspire as objective life has closed a little earlier his subjective life has by that very fact taken a firmer footing. He occupied and will I am confident continue to occupy a prominent place in the glorious gallery of the great and good. To the calendar of great men has been added this great name and the Hall of Greatness is all the grander for the entry of this Hero the true Martyr Swami Shraddhanand .
SHUDDHI WORK OF THE ARYA SAMAJ
By Lala Lajpat Rai
“If we have sinned against the man who loves us, have ever wronged a brother, friend or comrade, have ever done an injury to the neighbor who ever dwelt With us, or even to a stranger, O Lord! Free us from the guilt to this trespass.” -R. v., 85, 7.
I. Reclamation and Conversion
Literally, Shuddhi means purification, but when used by Arya Samajists it includes also reclamation and conversion. The Arya Samaj, being a Vedic church, and as such a Hindu organization, engages in the work of reclaiming those who have left Hindu society, and it converts everyone who is prepared to accept its rehgious teachings. In this work it comes into direct conflict with the proselytizing work of the Musulman Mullah and the Christian missionary; the j Musulman fanatic and the Christian zealot hate it, but even the sober-minded moulvie and the broadminded Christian do not like it. Yet it has met with considerable success in reclaiming Hindus converted to other faiths, and in stemming the tide of conversion. But its greatest success lies in raising the
social status of the depressed classes among the Hindus and preventing them from leaving Hinduism and joining other religious denominations. About the reconversions the Census Commissioner of the United Provinces of Agra and Oude remarks : ” Special efforts are directed to the reconversion of converts from Hinduism to Christianity or Islam, while persons who are Christian or Mahomedan by birth are also occasionally converted.” ” . . . of such Mahomedan converts I have myself known at least one case, and others have occurred. There is a society affiliated to the Arya Samaj , which is known as the Rajput Shuddhi Sabha, >^ which has as its chief object the reconversion of Mahomedan Rajputs to Hinduism via the Arya Samaj. On a single day 370 such Rajputs were converted to Aryaism. In three years, between 1907 . and 1910, this society claims to have converted 1,052 Musulman Rajputs.”^
2. Ceremony of Conversion
Another Census Commissioner of the same province (Mr. Burn, I.C.S.) says that “the ceremony of conversion is simple. The would-be Arya lives on milk alone for a period of fifteen days/ this being known as the Chandrain birt. The admission into the Samaj is made the occasion of a public meeting, at which the convert declares his adherence to the ten principles of the Samaj, a great homa sacrifice is performed, passages from the Vedas are recited, and the convert distributes sweetmeats to those present. “^ In some cases a certificate of Shuddhi is issued, which facilitates social intercourse with Hindus.
3. Depressed Classes
But the greatest interest is being taken in the social uplifting of the lower castes; this reclamation is taking two distinct lines : (i) the raising of the Status of castes not entitled to wear the sacred thread, by admitting them to that privilege ; and . (2) raising the untouchables to the rank of touchable, and educating them to higher social ideals, with a view to eventually raising them to social equality with other Hindus. This work is done by the Arya Samaj es as such, as well as by special organizations supported by the Arya Samaj and affiliated, directly or indirectly, to the latter. Two years ago the author delivered a speech on this subject as President of a large Conference, at the anniversary of the Gurukula at Hardwar, and discussed the question from three standpoints : from the point of view of the Hindu community ; as a question of all-Indian importance ; and in its humanitarian bearing. Discussing it from the all- India point of view, he said : ” It is to be remembered that national define has its origin in the oppression of others, and if we Indians desire to achieve national self-respect and dignity, we should open our arms to our unfortunate brothers and sisters of the depressed classes and help to build up in them the vital spirit of human dignity. So long as we have ^/l these large classes of the untouchables in this country we can make no real progress in our national affairs, for this requires a high moral standard ; and this is unthinkable where the weaker classes are unfairly treated. No man may build his greatness on his brother’s weakness; man shall stand or fall by his Own strength.”
As recently as December last the author again discussed the subject, as the President of another large Conference of the same nature at Karachi (Sindh).
In the course of this speech he remarked that ” the cause of the depressed classes combines in it the best of religion, the best of humanity, and the best of nationalism ; that it is a cause worthy of the best energies and the most strenuous efforts of a large number of India’s daughters and sons, such as believe that ‘ Life is a mission and duty its highest Law,’ and that the best fulfillment of that duty lies in the service and uplifting of those whom human tyranny and prejudices have put out of the pale of humanity, and who are unfortunately the victims of the idea that they deserve no better fate.”
“In my opinion,” continued the speaker, “no greater wrong can be done to a human being endowed with intellect than to put him into circumstances Which make him believe that he is eternally doomed to a life of ignorance, servitude, and misery, and that in him any sort of ambition for his betterment is a sin.
“No slavery is more harmful than that of mind, and no sin is greater than to keep human beings in perpetual bondage. It is bad enough to enslave people, but to create and perpetuate circumstances which prevent them from breaking their chains and becoming free, is infamous. No man or number of men has a right to do this, and they deserve the severest condemnation of all who have a conscience. It is my firm conviction that injustice and oppression of fellow-men, the attempt to stifle legitimate human ambition, the desire to keep people down in order to profit by their misfortune, is sure to react on the authors and agents thereof, and that nothing can save them from a similar fate sooner or later except a timely consciousness of the gravity of their sin and a vigorous attempt to atone for it by undoing the mischief wrought.
” I am a Hindu and a firm behever in the doctrine of Karma. I also behave that every man makes his own Karma, and is thus the arbiter of his own destiny. I therefore look at the question thus: the ancestors of the Hindus (or perhaps they themselves in their previous existence), in the insolence of wealth and power maltreated people whom God had placed under them to protect and bless. The degradation of the latter reacted upon them and reduced them to the subordinate position which has been their lot for so many centuries, without in any way benefiting those who had already been degraded by them. This double degradation has resulted in the loss of the manly instincts of the race ; and we find that, despite a strong and sincere desire to improve, we feel as if the wheels of progress are kept back by forces beyond our control. The highest interests of the nation therefore require that the best in us should be devoted to the undoing of the mischief wrought by us or our ancestors. We owe a heavy debt to those depressed classes; that debt must be paid, and paid as soon as possible. No amount of paper resolutions and no amount of talking on platforms will make us men unless we adopt the first principle of manhood, viz., of making the amended honorable to those of our own people whom we have wronged and whom we continue to wrong under an entirely mistaken idea of our dignity and social position. Living in the midst of large classes of people not conscious of their manhood, we cannot hope to progress towards a better type ; a man Having in an atmosphere of infectious disease has to keep up constant war lest the germs of disease get admittance into his body and destroy it. At the best, action in such circumstances can only be preventive and not operative: our work for ourselves can only be negative and not affirmative. Even if we succeed in avoiding infection, that does not mean much, as our time is spent in preventive measures without making advance. We have, therefore, to realize that the best and highest sacrifices we may put forth for our national advancement cannot come to much as long as the depressed classes remain what they are. The question then, is one of national importance, and one which deserves to be placed almost at the head of the list of reforms needed to bring about our social efficiency. It is not a question of charity or goodwill but one of National self-preservation. I have so far looked at it from humane and national points of view, but there is another aspect which Hindus cannot ignore. The depressed classes or the vast bulk of them, are Hindus; they worship Hindu gods, observe Hindu custom, and follow the Hindu law. A great many of them worship the cow and obey their Brahman priests. They have no desire to go out of Hinduism unless it be impossible for them otherwise to better their position reugiously, socially, and Economically. Nay, they cling to Hinduism in spite of the knowledge that by giving it up and adopting other faiths they have an immediate prospect of Rising both socially and economically. There are agencies prepared to receive them with open arms if only they give up their ancestral faith, of which they Know little, and whose priests care so little for them. Indications are not wanting that many of them have already become conscious of the wretched position they hold in Hindu society. Some have begun to resent it, and it will be no wonder if large numbers of them leave Hindu society with thoughts of retaliation and revenge. Hindu society is in a state of transition, and is throwing off the accretions that have gathered round it in times of stress and trouble. With the advance of education and under modern influences, striking changes are taking place in the ideals and modes of life and thought of the society. The great majority of educated Hindus think that their progress, even on the most advanced modem lines, does not necessitate their giving up their religion or its forms, or even the mainsprings of their life as Hindus. If so, it is a question of paramount importance to Hindu society, that all those who call themselves Hindus should not only be properly educated, but that each member should have the consciousness that there is no position in society to which he cannot aspire if he is otherwise fitted for it by personal qualifications. No society can hold its own in these days of universal competition and education if it does not allow its members the fullest scope for progress. “Modern societies go further; they not only allow the fullest scope to their members but they have also to find opportunities tor progress. According to sound social conceptions, there cannot be much hope for a society which keeps a fourth of its total strength in perpetual bondage, doomed to dirty work, insanitary life, and intellectual starvation, and denies them opportunities of association with other members of the community. I am not prepared to admit that such a state of things forms an essential feature of Hinduism; it is enough to shame us that it should be associated with present day Hinduism.
Happily there is some awakening among the leaders of orthodox Hinduism also. The famous Gait Circular proved a good tonic for the apathy of orthodox Kashi. One fine morning the learned pandits of Kashi rose to learn that their orthodoxy stood the chance of losing the allegiance of six cores of human beings who, the Government and its advisers were told, were not Hindus, in so far as other Hindus would not acknowledge them as such, and would not even touch them. The ways of Providence are strange and inscrutable. The Gait Circular had a quite unexpected effect and galvanized the dying body of orthodox Hinduism into sympathy with its untouchable population, because that was so necessary to avert its own downfall. The possibility of losing the untouchables has shaken the intelligent section of the Hindu community to its very depths, and were it not for long established prejudices and deep-rooted habits, the untouchableness would soon be a thing of the past. The danger having been removed of Hinduism being bereft of the depressed classes by the fiat of the Census Department, there is a chance of Hinduism reverting to its old apathy and indifference, and against this the leaders and well-wishers of the Hindu community have to guard. From the Hindu point of view too, then, the matter is of first-rate importance and cannot be ignored without serious loss to the body and soul of Hinduism. I would, therefore, appeal to every Hindu to be serious about it ; this is no time for trifling. The Christian missionary is gathering the harvest and no blame can attach to him for doing so. He is in this country with the message of His God, and if the Hindus forsake their own people, he, in any case, will not fail them. The depressed classes, as I have said, have no desire to leave Hinduism, if the latter make it possible for them to progress on humane lines; but if in its stupidity it hesitates and hesitates, they are not willing to follow in its train any longer.”
The following extract gives an account of what has so far been done by the Arya Samaj in this connection:
“. . . In the Punjab and the United Provinces substantial work is being done by the Arya Samaj. In my eyes the chief merit of this work Hes in forcing or persuading Hindu society to assimilate these classes and raise them to a respectable position in the social scale. From that point of view the methods of the Arya Samaj are much more effective than those adopted in other parts of India. The Arya SamajISTS occupy an admittedly good position in Hindu society. The orthodox party often threatens to outcaste them, but eventually find that it is not in their power to do so. In fact they cannot afford to lose them: Hinduism in Northern India cannot be thought of without the Arya Samaj. It is not only a source of strength to Hinduism and Hindus, but is the Principal effective agency, always and everywhere present, to defend them, to save them, and to serve them. It is the Arya Samajists who open and maintain schools, colleges, Vidyalas, and Gurukulas for the education of their boys and girls ; it is they who fight their religion.- and denominational battles, who defend their Shastras, who serve them in times of famine or distress, who look after their womanhood, and who spend money, time, and energy in reclaiming those who would otherwise be lost to them. The orthodox are angry with the Arya Samaj on account of their audacity in admitting some of the depressed classes and untouchables into Hindu society. They threaten to excommunicate and in some cases they carry out their threats, but eventually find it is useless to break their heads against rocks. In their despair, they pour out the vials of their wrath upon the untouchables and persecute them, but at this stage the law steps in and they have to submit to the inevitable.
” The Arya Samajists reclaim these depressed classes by admitting them to the privileges of the Dwijas. They administer Gayatri to a select number, invest them with the sacred thread, confer on them the privilege of performing Homa, and start inter-dining and in a few cases even inter-marriage with them. This startles the Hindus. The whole country where such a thing is done for the first time is thrown into convulsions. People begin to think and talk. Occasionally they resort to violence which in some cases leads to litigation, but eventually truth, justice and perseverance triumph. In the territories of the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir the whole strength of one of these castes (in one pargana), about 10,000 souls, has been admitted into the Arya Samaj. This is the result of about three years’ work. The agitation is now subsiding and things are resuming their normal condition. In another district (Sialkote) over 36,000 of another caste have been similarly raised. A special organization has been formed to look after their education, etc., called the Megh Udhar Sabha (a society for the uplift of Meghs), which maintains a Central School and several primary schools. The Central School has a splendid building of its own, the foundation stone of which was laid by the Collector of the District, and on which they have spent some forty thousand rupees. In Another district (Gurdaspur) Pandit Ram Bhaj Dat has reclaimed several thousands within the last two years. The orthodox party is still agitated there, and no organization has yet been formed to look after those reclaimed. In another district (Hoshiarpur), thousands have been reclaimed and there is a regular organization looking after their educational and other needs. In Lahore itself good work is being done among Hindu sweepers and Chamars. In July, I purchased a large plot of land at Lahore on the other side of the Ravi, at a cost of Rs. 21,000, to build a Central Home and a Central School for the Depressed Classes Mission. We have used a portion of the balance of the famine fund, raised by me in 1908, towards the uplift of the depressed classes, and are maintaining some Primary Schools scattered over the province for the benefit of these classes. Some of these are receiving Government grants and others will soon earn them. The funds thus released will then be available for other schools. There is hardly a district in the province where some work in connection with the uplift of the depressed classes is not being done, though in most cases it only forms part of the general programmed of the Arya Samaj. But the best and most cheering part of this work is that in some places the orthodox party have become conscious of their duty towards the depressed classes and are in full sympathy with the Arya Samaj. At the last session of the Punjab Hindu Conference, at the suggestion of a Hindu Sadhu of the orthodox party, a resolution was unanimously passed to invite the depressed classes to send representatives to the Conference in future. In Lahore and some other places we find that high caste Hindus have no scruples in sending their children to the schools which we maintain mainly for the depressed classes.
The children mix quite freely and on equal terms. In the U. P., the home of Hindu Orthodoxy, the work is more difficult; but last year I succeeded in making a big hole in the orthodox fortress by reclaiming a number of Domes (one of the lowest untouchable castes in the U.P.) and admitting them into the Arya Samaj. I went to their house in the interior of the hills and along with a number of high caste Arya Samajists ate food cooked by them and drank water brought by them. Last year I went to Benares and in that very centre of Hindu orthodoxy addressed a huge meeting on this question, and challenged the pandits to outcaste me and others working with me. I did the same only lately at Muradabad and Bareilly. The Arya Samajists in these districts are maintaining a number of schools for the Chamar boys, who alone number 60 lacs in the United Provinces. The untouchables in the U. P. number about a crore and a quarter in a total Hindu population of about four crores, and the problem there is gigantic. The great need in those provinces is a mission solely devoted to the work, consisting of good Hindus, who really believe in the Hindu Shastras and have a genuine respect for Hindu life and thought.” These extracts give a fair idea of the influence of the Arya Samaj in the sphere of social uplift . It is a magnificent work, of which any single Indian organization may well be proud. But no one feels more than we do how little has yet been achieved in this line. We are yet only on the fringe of the area to be conquered, and many a battle will have to be fought before the victory is achieved. The Arya Samaj as a body is, however, conscious of the magnitude as well as of the importance of the work, and their success is, humanly speaking, almost certain. Their feeling may well be expressed in the words of the poet
:It may be that the gulfs will wash us down
:It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,. . . but something ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done.
Somehow to Abdul Rashid is being given credit for what he as an ordinary man could never have done. He owed no grudge to Swami Shraddhananda. The latter had done him no personal wrong. Till before the Counsel for him disillusioned him under the awe of legal justice, he is reported to have been proud of what he regarded to be greatest service he could have done to his religion.
And how do his co-religionists take it? We thought it was a misguided editor who justified the deed of Abdul Rashid as being in accordance with Islamic Law. The other day in a mass meeting in Lahore, speaker after speaker condemned Shraddhananda instead of Abdual Rashid for the murder. One went so far as to say that under a Muslim Government the sword ( it was a revolver which in the flow of Urdu oratory was termed sword) which killed Shraddhananda or a man like him should have been kissed with reverence and affection. Another, to match presumably the exhortation of Arya Samajists that the blood of the martyr will prove prolific in producing a corps of Shraddhanandas, declared that if Aryas persisted in their course, thousands of Abdul Rashidswould forthcoming. The desire of the two communities will thus be most befittingly met.
One who has gone through Islamic literature will not be surprised at this ebullition of fanatic feeling. The tendency to kill non – Islamwith the sword dates from the time of Mohammad. We reproduce below a few of the commandments of the Quran in this regard with authoritative orthodox comment thereon and shall supplement these divine behests with quotation from books containing traditions of Prophet and excerpts from books of Islamic law governing Mohammadan jurisprudence to day.
O! those who believe? If anyone you turn away from his faith, well, God will send a people whom you will love and who will love you (Quran VI54) The Wuran appears to have omitted to the state here what to do with the apostate. He was presumably to be left to his fate. Commentators on the Quran however fill up the gaps says Bezavi: God gave tidiings of these happenings before they took place. These tribes apostatized towards the end of Mohammad’s life. One of them was BanuMudlaj… The chief was killed by FairozBailami in the night of the prophet’s death. The news was carried to the prophet and Mohammadans rejoiced. Similar also was the fate of other tribes which Bezavi narrates in the lines that follow. In the verse that follows the Quran is itself explicit:- and if they turn away (from their faith), take hold of them and kill them where you find them (IV-89-9- and if they turn away (from their faith), take hold of them and kill them where you find them (IV-89-9- and if they turn away (from their faith), take hold of them and kill them where you find them (IV-89-9- and if they turn away (from their faith), take hold of them and kill them where you find them (IV-89-90) No comment is deeded on this passage. The words enclosed within brackets are taken from Bezavi to make the meaning of the text clear. The former of theses versed is explained in Bukhari, whose place among the collectors of traditions is foremost. In the chapter bearing on the Acceptance or Non acceptance of Repentance from Apostates this verse is quoted as deciding this important issues. Difference of opinion is shown to exist among alumni as to the final decree to be based on of the injunction of verses. That the apostate should be murdered all are unanimous. Whether to give him three days respite and allow him to recant if the will is the pint at issue. Dar Qitni is said to have reported on the authority of Jabir that the prophet ordered the murder of a woman who apostatized in his life time. A few pages further a man is stated to have come to th Prophet to take with him the governor whom the latter appointed over the province of Yaman. Moaz was sent to fill that office and as he saw a man bound hand and foot and learnt on inquiry that he was an apostate from Islam he refused to sit till the later was murdered as this he said was the behest of Allah and the Prophet.
The same stories are repeated in other book of traditions. Asection among Mohammadans aver that these commandments and decisions brutal on the face of them were dictated by the exigencies of time which to day do not exist. We regard the whole Quran to have been dictated by exigencies of time which too fortunately do not exist today. The pity is that Mohammadan priests whose writings have regulated Mohammadan jurisprudence till this time and whose interpretation of Mohammadan law governs even today all codes of judicial laws for Mohammandans have perpetuated these exigencies into eternal demand of God appointed law. An excerpt from Hedaya will be found to the point. The compilation of this book does not belong to the age of Mohammad but to an age centuries later. Mohammadan low is even today framed in accordance with the decree of this book.
“when a mussulman apostatizes from the faith an exposition thereof is to be laid before him in such a manner that if his apostasy should have raised from any religious doubts or scruples those may be removed. The reason for laying an exposition of the faith before him is that it is possible some doubts or errors may have arisen in his mind. Which may be removed by such exposition and as there are two modes of repelling the sin of apostasy namely destruction or Islam and Islam is preferable to destruction the evil is rather to be removed by means of an exposition of the faith is not incumbent according to what the learned have remarked upon this head (since a call to the faith has already reached the apostate.)
“as apostate is to be imprisoned for three days; within which time if he returns to the faith it is well but if not he must be slain. It is recorded in the Jam’s Sagheer that ‘an exposition of the faith is to be laid before an apostate and if he refuses the faith he must be slain and with respect to what is above stated that he is to be imprisoned for three days, it only implied that if he requires a delay three days must be granted him as such is the term generally admitted and allowed for the purpose of consideration. It is recorded from Hanifa and AbouJusef that the granting of a delay of three days is land able whether that apostate requires it or not and it is recorded from Shafai that is not lawful for him to put th apostate to death before that lapse of this time . since it is most problem that a Mussulman will not apostatize but from some doubt or error arising in his mind; wherefore some time is necessary for consideration and this is fixed at three days. The arguments of our doctors upon this point are two fold. First God says in the Koran “Slay the unbeliever” without any reserve of a delay of three days being granted to him and the Prophet has also said “Slay the man who change his religion” without mentioning anything concerning a delay. Secondly an apostate is an infidel enemy who has received a call to the faith wherefore he may be slain upon the instant without any delay. An apostle is termed on this occasion an infidel enemy because he is undoubtedly such and he is not protected since he has not required a protection neither is he a Zimmee because capitation tax has not been accepted from him hence it is proved that he is an infidel enemy. It is to be observed that in these rules there is not difference made between an apostate who is a freeman and one who is a slave as the arguments upon which they are established apply equally to both description.
If an apostate dies or be slain in his apostasy his property acquired during his profession of the faith goes to his heirs who are Mussulman and whatever he acquired during the apostasy is public property of community of Mussulmans that is it goes to the public treasury. This is according to Hanifa….
All acts of an apostate with respect to his property such as purchases sale manumission mortgages and gift done during his apostasy are suspended in their effect. If therefore he becomes a Mussalman those acts are valid but if he dies or be slain or desert into a foreign country those acts are null.
“if any person kills an apostate before an exposition of the faith has been laid open to him. It is abominable that is it is laudable to let him continue unmolested. Nothing however is incurred by the slayer because the infidelity of an alien(?) renders the killing of him admissible and an exposition of the faith after a call to the faith is not necessary.
“ if a Mussulman woman becomes an apostate she is no put to death but is imprisoned until she returns to the faith. Shafei maintains that she is to be put to death because of the tradition before cited and also because as men are put to death for apostasy solely for this reason that it is a crimes of great magnitudes and therefore requires that its punishment to proportionately savers (namely, death) so the apostasy for woman being likewise (like that of a man ) a crime of great magnitude it follows that her punishment should be the same at that of a man.
“if a husband and wife both apostatize and desert to a foreign country and the woman becomes pregnant there and brings forth a child and to this child another child be afterwards born and the Mussulman troops then subdue the territory the child and the child both are plunder and the property of the state the child is so because as the apostate mother is made a slave her child is so likewise as a dependent on her and the child’s child is so because he is an original infidel and an enemy and as an original infidel is fee or the property of the state so is he woman’s child may moreover be compelled to become a Mussulman but not the child’s child. Hassan records from Haneefa that compulsion may be used upon the child’s child or so to make him embrace the faith as a dependent of the grandfather.
Our last quotation is from Sir Abdul Rahim’s Mohammedan Jurisprudence a recent complain which may be fairly thought to represent sound Muslim opinion as to the award of Islam in all matters of vital importance to that faith.
Apostasy or change of faith from Islam to infidelity places the apostate outside the protection of law. The law however by way of indulgence gives the apostate a certain locus penitential. For instance he will be first asked to conform to the faith and if he entertains any doubt efforts must be made to remove it by argument he will be given an option of three days to re embrace the faith before the sentence is passed on him . but since by the very fact of apostacy a man losses the protection of law, if even before the chance of re embracing the faith has been given to him a Muslim kills an apostate it will be considered as an improper act but he would incur no penalty of the law. So long as the sentence has not been passed on an apostate he will be allowed according to the two disciple to retain possession of this property but according to Abu Hanfait passes to his heirs at the instance of apostacy.
Shraddhananda was surely not an apostate but a potent instigator to the crime (?) no doubt. Maulana Abdul Bari on the occasion of the Unity Conference which was a sequel to Mahatma Gandhi’s 21stdays fast id Delhi, demanded that apostacy from Islam should be punished also in India if not with death with at least imprisonment as it is in the Bhopal State.
What the advocates of religious liberty both Muslim and Non Muslim have to fight is this barbarous attitude of Islamic jurisprudence and not an individual Abdul Rashid who like millions of his misguided brethren is a victim of blind faith and deserves our pity rather than contempt and indignation.
Builder of Unity – Rishi Dayanand Saraswati
-By Romain Rolland
Indian religious thought raised a purely Indian Samaj against Keshab’s Brahmo Samaj and against all attempt at Westernization even during lifetime, and its head was a personality of the highest order, Dayanand Saraswati.
This man with the nature of a lion is one of those, whom Europe is too apt to forget when she judges India, but whom she will probably be forced to remember to her cost; for he was that rare combination, a thinker of action with a genius for leadership like Vivekanand after him.
While all the religious leaders of whom we have already spoken and shall speak in the future were and are from Bengal, Dayanand came from quite a different land, the one which half a century later gave birth to Gandhi – the north-west coast of the Arabian Sea. He was born in Gujrat at Tankara (Morvi) in the State of Kathiawar of a rich family belonging to the highest grade of Brahmins no less versed in Vedic learning than in mundane affairs both political and commercial. His father took part in the government of the little native state. He was rigidly orthodox according to the letter of the law with a stern domineering character, and this last to his sorrow he passed on to his son.
As a child Dayanand was therefore brought up under the strictest Brahmin rule, and at the age of eight was invested with the Sacred Thread and all the severe moral obligations entailed by this privilege rigorously enforced by his family. It seemed as if he was to become a pillar of orthodoxy in his turn, but instead he became the Samson, who pulled down the pillars of the temple; a striking example among a hundred others of the vanity of human effort, when it imagines that it is possible by a superimposed education to fashion the mind of the rising generation and so dispose of the future. The most certain results is revolt.
That of Dayanand is worth recording. When he was fourteen his father took him to the temple to celebrate the great festival of Shiva. He had to pass the night after a strict fast in pious vigil and prayer. The rest of the faithful went to sleep. The young boy alone resisted its spell. Suddenly he saw a rat nibbling the offerings to the God and running over Shiva’s body. It was enough. There is no doubt a but moral revolt in the heart of a child. In a second his faith in the idol was shattered for the rest of his life. He left the temple. Went home along through the night, and thenceforward refused to participate in the religious rites.
It marked the beginning of a terrible struggle between father and son. Both were of an unbending and autocratic will, which barred the door to any mutual concession. At nineteen Dayanand ran away from home to escape from a forced marriage. He was caught and imprisoned. He fled again, this time for ever.(1845). He never saw his father again.
For fifteen years this son of a rich Brahmin, despoiled of everything and subsisting on alms, wandered as a sadhu clad in the saffron robe along the roads of India.This agins seems like a first edition of Vivekanand’s life and his pilgrimage as young man over the length and breath of Hindustan Like him Dayanand went in search of learned men, ascetics, studying here philosophy, there the Vedas, learning the theory and practice of the Yoga. He visited almost all the holy places of India and took part in religious debates.
Like him He suffered, he braved fatigue, insult and danger and this contact with the body of his fatherland lasted four time longer than Vivekanand’s experience. In the contradiction of the later, however, Dayanand remained far from the human masses through which he passed, for the simple reason that he spoke nothing but Sanskrit throughout this period.He was indeed what Vivekanand would have been if he had not encountered Ramkrishna and if his high aristocratic and puritan pride had not been curbed by the indulgent kindness and the rare spirit of comprehension of his most human of Gurus. Dayanand did not see, did not wish to see, anything round him but superstition and ignorance, spirituality, degrading prejudices and the millions of idols he abominated. At length about 1860 he found at Mathura an old Guru even more implacable than himself in his condemnation of all weakness and his hatred of superstition, a Sanyasin blind from infancy and from the age of eleven quite alone in the world, a learned man, a terrible man, Swami Virjanand Saraswati. Dayanad put himself under his “discipline” which in its old literal seventeenth century sense scarred his flesh as well as his spirit. Dayanand served this untamable and indomitable man for two and half years as his pupil. It is therefore mere justice to remember that his subsequent course of action was simple the fulfillment of the will of the stern blind man, whose surname he adopted, casting his own to oblivion. When they separated, Virjanand extracted from him the promise that he would consecrate his life to the annihilation of the heresies that had crept into the Puranic faith, to re-establish the ancient religious methods of the age before Buddha, and to disseminate the truth.
Dayanand immediately began to preach in Northern India, but unlike the benign men of God who open all heaven before the eyes of their hearers, he was a hero of the Iliad or of the Gita with the athletic strength of a Hercules, who thundered against all forms of thought other than his own, the only true one. He was so successful that in five years. Northern India was completely changed. During these five years his life was attempted four or five times – some times by poison. Once a fanatic threw a cobra at his face in the name of Shiva, but he caught and crushed it. It was impossible to get the better of him; for he possessed an unrivalled knowledge of Sanskrit and the Vedas, while the burning vehemence of his words brought his adversaries to naught. They likened him to a flood. Never since Sankara had such a prophet of Vedism appearedThe orthodox Brahmins, completely overwhelmed, appealed from him to Benares, their Rome. Dayanand went there fearlessly, and undertook in November, 1869, a Homeric contest before millions of assailants, all eager to bring him to his knees, he argued for hours together alone against three hundred pandits – the whole front line and the reserve of Hindu orthodox.He proved that the Vedanta as practiced was diametrically opposed to the primitive Vedas. He claimed that he was going back to the true word. They had not the patience to hear him. He was hooted down and excommunicated. A void was created round him, but the echo of such a combat in the style of the Mahabharat spread throughout the country, so that his name became famous over the whole of India.
At Calcutta, where he stayed from December 15, 1872 to April 15, 1873 Ramakrishna met him. He was also cordially received by the Brahmo Samaj. Keshab and his people voluntarily shut their eyes to the differences existing between them; they saw in him a rough ally in their crusade against orthodox prejudices and the million of gods. But Dayanand was not a man to come to an understanding with religious philosophers imbued with Western ideas. His national Indian theism, its steel faith forged from the pure metal of the Vedas alone, had nothing in common with theirs, tinged as it was with modern doubt, which denied the infallibility of the Vedas and the doctrine of transmigration. He broke with them, the richer for the encountered, for he owed them the very simple suggestion, whose practical value had not struck him before, that his propaganda would be of little effect unless it was delivered in the language of the people.
He went to Bombay, where shortly afterwards his sect, following the example of the Brahmo Samaj, but with a better genius of organization, proceeded to take root in the social life of India. On April 10, 1875, he founded at Bombay his first Arya Samaj, or Association of the Aryans of India the pure Indians, the descendents of the old conquering race of Indus and the Ganges. And it was exactly in the thoes district that it took root most strongly. From 1877 the year when its principles were definitely laid down at Lahore to 1883, Daynand spread a close network over Northern India, Rajputana, Gujraat and the United Province of Agra and Oudh and above all in the Punjab, which remained his chosen land. Practically whole of India was affected. The only province where his influence failed to make itself felt was Madras.
He fell, struck down in his prime, by an assassin. The concubine of a Maharajah, whom the stern prophet had denounced, poisoned him. He died at Ajmer on October 30, 1883. But his work pursued its uninterrupted and triumphant course.
But his work pursued its uninterrupted and triumphant course. From 40000 in 1891 the number of its member rose to 100000 in 1901 to 243000 in 1911, and to 468000 in 1921. Some of the most important personalities politicians Maharajas belonged to it. Its spontaneous and impassioned success in contrast to the slight reverberation of keshab’s Brahmo Samaj, shows the degree to which Dayanand’s stern teachings corresponded to the though of his country and to first stirring of Indian Nationalism to which he contributed.
It may perhaps be useful to remind Europe of the reasons at the bottom of his national awakening, now in full flood.
Westernisation was going too far, and was not always revealed by its best side. Intellectually it had become rather a frivolous attitude of mind, which did away with the need for independence of thought, and transplanted young intelligence from their proper environment, teaching them to despise the genius of their race. The instinct for self-reservation revolted, Dayanand’s generation had watched, as he had done, not without anxiety, suffering, and irritation, the gradual infiltration into the veins of India of superficial European rationalism on the one hand, whose ironic arrogance understood nothing to the depths of the Indian spirit, and on the other hand, of a Christianity, which when it entered family life fulfilled only too well Christ’s prophecy he had come to bring division between father and son……………
It is certainly not for us to depreciate Christian influences. I am a catholic by birth, and as such have known the taste of Christ’s blood and enjoyed the storehouse of profound life, reveled in the books and in the lives of great Christians, although I am outside all exclusive forms of church and religion. Hence I do not dream of subordinating such a faith to any other faith whatsoever; when the soul had reached a certain pitch- acumen mentis. – it can go no further. Unfortunately the religion of one country does not always work upon Alien races through its best elements. Too often question of human pride are intermingled with the desire of earthly conquest, and, provided victory is attained, the view is too often held that the end justifies the means. I will go further and say that, even in its highest presentation, it is very rare that one religion takes possession of the spirit of another race in its deepest essence at the final pitch of the soul, of which I have just spoken. It does so rather by aspects, very significant no doubt but secondary in importance. Those of us, who have pored over the wonderful system of Christian metaphysics and sounded their depth, know what infinite spaces they offer to the soaring wings of the spirit and that the Divine Cosmos they present of the Being and the Love cleaving to Him, is no whit less vast or less sublime than the conception of the Vedantic infinite but if a Keshab was an exception among his people. And it would seem that Christianity very rarely manifested to Hindus under this aspect. It is presented to them rather as a code of ethics, of practical action, as a love in action, if such a term is permissible and though it is very important aspect, is not greatest. It is remarkable fact that the most notable conversations have taken place in the ranks of active and energetic personalities rather than in those of deep spiritual contemplation of men capable of heroic flights of soul.
Whether it is turn or not, and it provides ample theme for discussions, it is a historic fact that when Dayanand’s mind was in process of being formed, the highest religious spirit of India had been so weakened that the religious spirit of India Europe threatened to extinguish its feeble flame without the satisfaction of substituting its own. The Brahmo samaj was troubled by it, but was itself willy nilly stamped with Western Christianity. Ram Mohan Roy’s starting point had been protestant Unitarianism . Devendranath although he denied it, had not strength to prevent its intrusion into the samaj when he yielded the ascendency to Keshab, already three parts given over to it. As early as 1880 one of the Keshav’s critics could say that “those who believe in him have lost the name of theist, because they lean more and more towards Christianity. However precisely the position of the third Brahmo samaj had been defined as against Indian Christianity. Indian public opinion could feel no confidence in a church undermined by two successive schisms within the space of half a century and threatened as we have seen during the next half century with complete absorption in Christianity.
The enthusiastic reception accorded to the thunderous champion of the Vedas, a Vedist belonging to a great race and penetrated with the sacred writings of ancient India and with her heroic spirit, is then easily explained. He alone hurled the defiance of India against her invaders. Dayanand declared war on Christianity and his heavy massive sword cleft it asunder with scant reference to the scope or exactitude of his blows. He put it to the test of vengeful, unjust and injurious criticism, which fastened upon each separate verses of Bible and was blind and deaf to its real, its religious and even its literal meaning. His slashing commentary reminiscent of Voltaire and his dictionnaire philosophique, have unfortunately remained the arsenal for the spiteful anti – Christianity of certain modern Hindus. Nevertheless, as Glasenapp rightly remarks, they are of paramount interest for European Chriatianity of which ought to know what is the image of itself as presented by its Asiatic adversaries.
Dayanand had no greater regard for the Koran and the Puranas, trampled underfoot the body of Brahmin orthodoxy. He had no pity for any of his fellow country-men, past or present, who had contributed in any way to the thousand-year decadence of India, at one time the mistress of the world. He was a ruthless critic of all who, according to him, had falsified or profaned the true Vedic religion. He was a Luther fighting against his own misled and misguided Church of Rome; and his first care was to throw open the wells of the holy books, so that for the first time his people could come to them and drink for themselves. He translated and wrote commentaries on the Vedas in the vernacular – it was in truth an epoch-making date for India when a Brahmin not only acknowledged that all human beings have the right to know the Vedas, whose study had been previously prohibited by orthodox Brahmins, but insisted that their study and propaganda was the duty of every Arya.
It is true that his translation was an interpretation, and that there is much to criticize with regard to accuracy as well as with regard to the rigidity of the dogmas and principles he drew from the text, the absolute infallibility claimed for the one book, which according to him had emanated direct from the “Prehuman” or Superhuman Divinity, his denials from which there was no appeal, his implacable condemnations, his theism of action, his credo of battle, and finally his national God.
But in default of outpourings of the heart and the calm sun of the spirit, bathing the nations of men and their Gods in its effulgence, – in default of the warm poetry radiating from the entire being of a Ramkrishna or the grandiose poetic style of Vivekanda Dayanand transfused into the languid body of India his own formidable energy, his certainty, his lion’s blood, His words rang with heroic power. He reminded the secular passivity of a people, too prone to bow to fate, that the soul is free and that action is the generator of destiny. He set the example of a complete clearance of all the encumbering growth of privilege and prejudice by a series of hatchet blows. If his metaphysics were dry and obscure, if his theology was narrow and in my opinion retrograde, his social activities and practices were of intrepid boldness. With regard to questions of fact he went further than the Brahmo Samaj, and even further than the Ramkrishna Mission ventures to-day..
His creation; the Arya Samaj, postulates in principle equal justice for all men and all nations, together with equality of the sexes. It repudiates a hereditary caste system, and only recognizes professions or guilds, suitable to the complementary aptitudes of men in society; religion was to have no part in these divisions but only the service of the state, which assesses the tasks to be performed. The state alone, if it considers it fort he good of the community, can raise or degraded a man from one caste to another by way of reward or punishment.
Dayanand wished every man to have the opportunity to acquire as much knowledge as would enable him to raise himself in the social scale a high as he was able. Above all he would not tolerate the abominable injustice of the existence of the untouchables, and nobody has been a more ardent champion of their outrage rights. They were admitted to the Arya Samj on a basis of equality; for the Aryas are not a caste.” The Aryas are all men of superior principles; and the ‘Dasyus’ are they who lead a life of wickedness and sin.”
Dayanand was no less generous and no less bold in his crusade to improve the condition of women a deplorable one in India. He revolted against the abuses from which they suffered, recalling that in the heroic age they occupied in the home and in society a position at least equal to men. They ought to have equal education, according to him, and supreme control in marriage, over household matters including the finances.
Dayanand in fact claimed equal rights in marriage for men and women, and though he regarded marriage as indissoluble, he admitted the remarriage of widows and went so far as to envisage a temporary union for women as well as men for the purpose of having children, if none had resulted from marriage.
Lastly the Arya Samaj, whose eighth principle was “to diffuse knowledge and dissipate ignorance,” has played a great part in the education of India –
especially in the Punjab and the United Province – & it has founded a host of schools for girls and boys. Their laborious hives are grouped round two model establishments. The Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College of Lahore and the Gurukula of Kangri, national bulwarks of Hindu education, which seek to resuscitate the energies of the race – and to use at the same time the intellectual and technical conquests of the West.
To these let us add philanthropic activities, such as orphanages, workshops for boys and girls, homes for widows, and great works of social service at the time of public calamities famine, etc.
I have said enough about this Sanyasin with the soul of a leader, to show how great an uplifter of the people, he was – in fact the most vigorous force of the immediate and present actin in India at the moment of the rebirth and reawakening of the national consciousness. His Arya Samaj whether he wished it or not, prepared the way in 1905 for the revolt of Bengal. He was one of the most ardent prophets of reconstruction and of rational organization.
I feel that it was he who kept the Vigil; but his strength was also his weakness. His purpose in life was action and its object his nation. For a people
lacking the vision of wider horizon, the accomplishment of the action and the creation of the ration might perhaps be enough. But not for India – before her will still lie the universe .
Cows Nutrition and Food Security
ऋषि: -भारद्वाजो बार्हस्पत्य: , देवता पूषा:
- सं पूषन् विदुषा नय यो अञ्जसानुशासति । य एवेदमिति ब्रवत् ॥ ऋ6.54.1
Oh Pushan –Lord of Nutrition- lead us to the wisdom with clarity about our nutrition.
हे पूषन देवता, हमारी पोष्टिकता के लिये विस्तृत ज्ञान का उपदेश दो
2. समु पूष्णा गमेमहि यो गृहाँअभिशासति। इम एवेति च ब्रवत् ।। ऋ6.54.2
पूषन देवता के अनुसार गृहस्थों के लिए घरों मे गौपालन ही पौष्टिकता का अत्योत्तम साधन है.
It is the divine wisdom that a house cow is the perfect strategy for best of nutrition.
3. पूष्णश्चक्रं न रिष्यति न कोशोऽव पद्यते ।नो अस्य व्यथते पवि: ॥ ऋ 6.54.3
The wheel of the chariot of nutrition by cows is never stuck in ground and comes to harm nor is there any trouble or suffering in its movement.( Cows go through a natural cycle of calving milk giving getting pregnant drying off and calving again. But no harm comes to the nutrition cycle and it does not suffer.)
गोपालन मं ग्याभन होने के कुछ समय पश्चात दूध की मात्रा कम हो सूख कर कर पुन: संतानोत्पत्ति का चक्र क्रम पूषन व्यवस्था में कोइ व्यवधान नहीं हैं.
4. यो अस्मै हविषाविधन्न तं पूषापि मृष्यते। प्रथमो विन्दते वसु ।। ऋ 6.54.4
जो इस गोपालन यज्ञ में समर्पित भावना से गोसेवा करते हैं उन की पौष्टिकता में कभी कमी नहीं होती और उन की समृद्धि निश्चित होती है.
Those who dedicate themselves to taking care of their cows appropriately are blessed immensely with great riches.
5. पूषा गा अन्वेतु न: पूषा रक्षत्वर्वत: । पूषा वाजं सनोतु न: ।। ऋ 6.54.5
हमें गोपालन का उत्तम ज्ञान और सुविधाएं प्राप्त हों जिस से हमारी पौष्टिकता और बल बना रहे
We pray to have the wisdom and means to protect and nurture our cows and horses appropriately to ensure good nutrition and strengths. ..
6. पूषन्ननु प्र गा इहि यजमानस्य सुन्वत: । अस्माकं स्तुवतामुत ।। ऋ6.54.6
यजमान की गोसेवा और स्तुति के फलस्वरूप गो दुग्ध से उत्तम शिक्षित सुंदर वाणी प्राप्त हो.
Dedicated well managed care of the cows provides excellent quality of milk and ensure amiable speech and temperaments.
7. माकिर्नेशन्माकीं रिषन्माकीं सं शारि केवटे ।अथारिष्टाभिरा गहि ।। ऋ6.54.7
हमारी गौएं जो गोचर में स्वपोषन के लिए जाती हैं, किसी कुएं इत्यादि में गिर कर आहत न हों और सुरक्षितघर लौट आएं.
Cows as they go to pastures should be able to return safely without suffering any accidents there. (pastures should be well managed to ensure safety of the foraging cows.)
8. शृण्वन्तं पूषणं वयमिर्यमनष्टवेदसम् । ईशानं राय ईमहे ।। ऋ 6.54.8
विद्वत्जनों से पौष्टिकता के बारे मे ज्ञानप्राप्त करें जिस से निर्बलता दूर हो कर समृद्धि प्राप्त हो.
Learn the science of nutrition from experts to protect you from loss of vitality and have good life.
9. पूषन् तव व्रते वयं न रिष्येम कदा चन । स्तोतारस्त इह स्मसि।। ऋ6.54.9
उत्तम शिक्षा द्वारा उपयुक्त आहार के नियमों का सदैव पालन कना चाहिए.
By good learning and education, in the observance of good nutritional habits one should never be lax.
10. परि पूषा परस्ताध्दस्तं दधातु दक्षिणम् । पुनर्नो नष्टमाजतु ।। ऋ 6.54.10
जहां हम अपने दक्षता पूर्ण कर्म से पौष्टिकता के लिए उत्तम गोपालन और खाद्यान्न का प्रबंध करते हैं,वहां हमें साथ साथ जो पीछे कुछ त्रुटि के कारण अनिष्ट हो गया हो तो उसे भी सुधारने का कार्य करें.
On one hand while we exercise all our knowledge and skills in the management and production of excellent nutritive food products, on the other hand side by side we should also rectify if any mistakes have krept in our programs.
- मातेति गामुपस्पृश्य जपन् गास्तु समश्नुते । वचोविदमिति त्वेतां जपन् वाचं समश्नुते ॥ ऋग्विधान 2.187
जिन की गोपालन द्वारा उत्तम गोवंश और गोपालने के परिणाम स्वरूप उत्तम वाणि की इच्छा हो वे गौ माता को स्पर्ष करते हुए ‘माता रुद्राणाम, वचो विदम्’ से आरम्भ होने वाले ऋग्वेद सूक्त 8.101 के 15, 16 मंत्र का जप करें
He who desires good Cows & obtain gracious speech by grace of cows should while touching the cow, utter Rigved Sookt 8.101.15-16 beginning with ‘मातारुद्राणाम’ & ‘वचोविदम्’ – Rigvidhaan 2.187