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Rigveda on prosperity through industry

rigveda and technique

Rigveda on prosperity through industry

Author :- Subodh Kumar 

Technological advancement  RV 1.20

ऋषि: मेधातिथी काण्व = कण कण कर के मेधा से उन्नति करने वाला

1.   अयं देवाय जन्मने स्तोमो र्विप्रेभिरासया 

अकारि रत्नधातम: ।। RV1.20.1

जो दिव्य जीवन की प्राप्ति के लिए ज्ञानियों के मुख से उत्तम दिव्य ज्ञान प्राप्त करते हैं.इस प्रकार उन का जीवन रमणीयतम तत्वों को धारण कर लेता है.

2.   य इन्द्राय वचोयुजा ततक्षुर्मनसा हरी 

शमीभिर्यज्ञमाशत ।। RV1.20.2

जो मन से विद्वानों के उपदेश के अनुसार अपनी  ज्ञानेंद्रियों और कर्मेंद्रियों दोनो से शिल्प कुशलता पुरुषार्थ शीघ्र कार्य सिद्धि  से निर्माण के कार्य करते हैं  जैसे शमी वृक्ष से स्रुवा बना कर यज्ञ के द्वारा   वे शांति पूर्वक उत्तम सुखमय व्यवस्था स्थापित करते हैं.

3.   तक्षन्नासत्याभ्यां परिज्मानं सुखं रथम् 

तक्षन् धेनुं सबर्दुघाम्  RV1.20.3

वे जन जल और अग्नि के साधनों से  उत्तम शिल्प विद्या द्वरा सब जनों के सुख के लिए आने जाने के सुंदर रथादि के निर्माण की व्यवस्था और उत्तम बुद्धि के लिए सुंदर दूध वाली गौओं को भी उपलब्ध करते हैं.

Bi-polar Strategies

4.   युवाना पितरा पुन: सत्यमन्त्रा ऋजूयव: 

ऋभवो विष्टयक्रत ।।RV 1.20.4

सत्याचरण और सरल स्वभाव युक्त  अपने कर्म करने वाले ऋभु  दो भिन्न  गुण वाले तत्वों भौतिक और सामाजिक दोनों क्षेत्रों में (जैसे जल और अग्नि, positive and negative , electromagnetism ) तथा समाज में युवा वर्ग और प्रौढ वर्ग, को कार्य सिद्ध करने में बरम्बार प्रयुक्त करते हैं.

Indiscipline science

5.   सं वो मदासो अग्मेतेन्द्रेण  मरुत्वता 

आदित्येभिश्च राजभि: ।।RV 1.20.5

वे विद्वान लोग, सूर्य, विद्युत, मरुतगणों ( माइक्रोबायोलोजी) की विद्या से सन्युक्त लाभ ले कर ऐश्वर्य और आनंद की व्यवस्था करते हैं.

Training and learning of science & Technology

6.   उत त्यं चमसं नवं त्वष्टुर्देवस्य निष्कृतम् 

अकर्त चतुर: पुन: ।। RV1.20.6

चतुराइ से शिल्पीजनों के द्वारा भौतिक साधनों के प्रयोग को देख कर सीखो और उन्नति शील बनो.

 

Significance of Science & Technology

7.   ते नो रत्नानि धत्तन त्रिरासाप्तानि सुन्वते 

एकमेकं सुशस्तिभि: ।। RV1.20.7

त्रिसप्ता रत्न- तीन लोक –(पृथ्वी, अंतरिक्ष,द्यौ )–तीन इन के अधिष्ठाता – (अग्नि, वायु, सूर्य) ,तीन गुण – (सत्व,रजस्व, तमस्‌),  त्रि देव – (ब्रह्मा, विष्णु, महेश)  इन के तीन कार्य- ( सृष्टि, स्थिति, प्रलय), तीन काल –  (भूत,वर्तमान, भविष्य) ,तीन दिष-(वात,पित्त, कफ) , तीन अवस्थाएं – (बाल्य,यौवन, जरा)

इसी प्रकार सात ऋषी: ( कश्यप , अत्रि, वसिष्ठ, विश्वामित्र, गौतम,जमदग्नि, भरद्वाज), सात वार – (रवि,चंद्र,मङ्गल, बुध, ब्र्हस्पति,शुक्र, शनि) ,सात मरुद्गण-(उग्र, भीम, ध्वांत, धुनि,सासह्वान्‌, अभ्युग्वा,विक्षिप), सात लोक- ( भू:, भुव: ,स्व:, मह:, जन:, सत्य), सात छंद- ( गायत्री,उष्णिक,अनुष्टुप,बृहती,पंक्ति, त्रिष्टुप, जगती), इन सब का तीन और सात से अर्थ बोध. सायण के अनुसार –( 12 मास,+5ऋतु, +3 लोक, +1 सूर्य=21) , अथवा (5 महाभूत+5ज्ञानेंरियां+5कर्मेंद्रियां +5प्राण +1अंत:करण=21)

इन सब में अच्छी अच्छी प्रशंसा वाली क्रियाओं से समस्त विद्या, सुवर्णादि धनों को अच्छी प्रकार धारण करें. 

8.   अधारयन्त वह्नयोऽभजन्त सुकृत्यया 

भागं देवेषु यज्ञियम् ।RV  1.20.8

इस बाह्य संसार में शुभ कर्म वा उत्तम गुणों को प्राप्त कराने वाले बुद्धिमान सज्जन श्रेश्ठकर्म से विद्वानों में रह कर यज्ञादि कर्मों से आनंद का निरंतर सेवन करते हैं.

Cow the economic angle

cow and economic

Cow the economic angle

Author :- By Subodh Kumar
India has the world’s oldest tradition of domestic Cow. Indians have learnt that bounties that cow offers have many facets that provide with sustainable economic and environmental security.
1. Pastures fed cows provide the lowest cost of producing milk.
1a. This milk is rich in CLA i.e. Omega 3 and Omega 6 that provide health and disease immunity to human body.
1b. This milk is also rich in Carotenoids the main antioxidants that ensure healthy eye sight.
1c. As these cows spend most of their time under sun their milk is rich in natural Vitamin D , and there is no need to fortify like the US and Canadian dairy milk with synthetic Vitamin D.
1d. Cow milk is the only source of essential Vitamin B12 for vegetarians.
Such cow’s milk enables cheapest method of obtaining a healthy disease free human body and saves tremendous expense involved in dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, vitamin D capsules.
2. Cow Urine finds many Ayurvedic medicinal uses. For common man most interesting use of cow urine has been developed by MGIRI ( Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Rural Industries ) at Wardha. Cow urine contains natural biocidal properties of phenol and carbolic acids. Research at MGIRI has standardized formulation of natural organic floor cleaner as a substitute for chemically formulated phenyl used in homes.
3. Cow dung has been used as a plaster for building rural houses, as the cheapest sustainable building material for houses. It also provides hygienic living.
4. 95% of phosphorus for Indian chemical fertilizer industry is imported at a cost of over 2 billion dollars. Cow Dung contains up to 0.4% phosphorus. Entire cow dung in India as fertilizer will not only reduce the requirements of pesticides in agriculture but also will save foreign exchange expense.
5. Traditionally in rural areas dried cow dung cakes are used as cooking fuel. India has been promoting biogas plants. Methane produced by cow dung is a global warming gas. Biogas plants harvest all the cow dung methane, for use as cooking fuel. This also prevents cow dung methane to aid in global warming.
6. Slurry produced by biogas plants contains all the soil nutrients including the most important component phosphorus. This is also the cheapest and sustainable soil fertilizer.
7. Cow slaughter has been a very emotional issue in India. When a cow is well looked after it can easily provide an average of 1500 liters of milk in one lactation period. But when cows are not well looked after the milk yield falls to very low uneconomic levels and all such cows get diverted to slaughter houses to provide cheap meat. No good cows are ever discarded for slaughter. It is matter for community to have the resources and skill to maintain cows in good health and be able to provide adequate milk for as many as ten lactations. Cow slaughter agitation will no longer be necessary. Productivity of a living cow is economically far higher than a slaughtered cow. In due course every born cow will meet natural death. Leather from such cows will be always available
8. As far as meat eating is concerned world has become wiser. Meat has the highest water foot print among all foods. Scientific community is of the opinion that meat eating will not be able to sustain food production for the growing population of the world. This is where Indian wisdom of vegetarian diet becomes relevant.
9. Latest researches have confirmed that Indian breeds of Cows are producers of A2 type milk that is considered safest for human health. A2 type milk enjoys high customer preference in world markets. US cross bred cows produce A1 type milk that has been associated with incidence of diseaesc such as obesity, diabetes, cancer heart trouble etc. Even Indian constitution provides for conservation of Indian breeds. Gujarat Govt. is the first in the country to stop cross breeding. Gujarat is also home to the best Indian breed of Gir cows and has become the largest exporter of milk abroad.

Caste system and Vedas

 

casteCaste system and Vedas

Author : By Subodh Kumar

Caste system is the biggest curse of our society. General impression that caste is sanctioned by Vedas is based on wrong interpretation of Vedas. The following Sookt from Rig Ved is submitted in support of this.
Varn Vyawasthaa
RV9.112
There is no sanction in Vedas of castes by birth system
वर्ण – ब्राह्मण, क्षत्री,वैश्य,शूद्र जाति यानी जन्म से नहीं होते
Nurturing of Talents
शिशुराङ्गिरस: । पवमान: सोम: ।
ध्रुव पंक्ति: ।इन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव
Refrain line is: Natural Talents may flower;
प्राकृतिक प्रतिभाओं का विकास हो.

Different temperaments;

नानानं वा उ नो धियो वि व्रतानि जनानाम् ।
तक्षा रिष्टं रुतं भिषग् ब्रह्मा सुन्वन्तमिच्छतीन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.1
Humans manifest different traits.
1. Work with Physical Objects; One has an inclination to be skilled with physical objects and techniques.
2. Work with living Objects; One wants to become a healer, a doctor to bring comfort by cure to others.
3. Work on Minds; One wants to be a learned person interested in bringing bounties of wisdom to others.
The motivating force in humans manifests in various forms, and needs to be nurtured accordingly. Natural Talents may flower

मनुष्य भिन्न भिन्न प्रकृति के हैं. कोई शिल्पकार – वस्तुओं के स्वरूप को सुधारने वाला बनना चाहता है; तो कोई वैद्य- भिषक बन कर प्राणियों के स्वास्थ्य मे सुधार लाना चाहता है; तो अन्य ज्ञान का विस्तार कर के समाज में दिव्यता की उपलब्धियों के लिए शिक्षा यज्ञादि अनुष्ठान कराना चाहता है.
इन सब प्रकार की वृत्तियों के विकास के अवसर उपलब्ध कराने चाहिएं. प्राकृतिक प्रतिभाओं का विकास हो.
Set up Different Avenues of Education

जरतीभिरोषधीभि: पर्णेभि: शकुनानाम् ।
कार्मारो अश्मभिर्द्युभिर्हिरण्यवन्तमिच्छतीन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.2
1. Different herbs, products from other living beings like feathers of a bird and such materials have medicinal properties; Set up avenues to study and teach about them.
2. Technologies can provide opportunities to generate wealth by intelligent working with minerals etc.; set up institutions for nurturing these talents.

1. भिन्न भिन्न जड़ी बूटियों, भिन्न भिन्न प्राणियों के अवयवों से अनेक ओषधियां प्राप्त होती हैं. इन के प्रशिक्षण अनुसंधान के साधन उत्पन्न करो.
2. खनिज पदार्थों इत्यादि से ज्ञान कौशल द्वारा धनोपार्जन सम्भव होता है. इन विषयों पर प्रशिक्षण अनुसंधान के साधन उपलब्ध कराओ.

Different Vocations

कारुरहं ततो भिषगुपलप्रक्षिणी नना ।
नानाधियोवसूयवोऽनु गा इव तस्थिमन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.3
I am a musician, my family (father& Son) are medical practioners healing diseases, my mother grinds corn to make our food. We all perform our duties to make our contribution to sustain the society, like a cow sustains us all.
मैं संगीतज्ञ हूं, मेरे पिता वैद्य हैं, मेरी माता अनाज को पीसती है. हम सब इस समाज के पोषण में एक गौ की भांति अपना अपनाअपना योगदान करते हैं.
Different predilections- भिन्न भिन्न रुचि

अश्वो वोळहा सुखं रथं हसनामुपमन्त्रिण: ।
शेपो रोमण्वन्तौ भेदौ वारिन्मण्डूक इच्छतीन्द्रायेन्दो परि स्रव ।। 9.112.4
A routine worker like a horse drawing a laden cart with good
master is contended. Another person wants to spend time among friends making merry. Yet another one has high libido and seeks female company. But natural talents must be developed to find opportunities for community development.
साधारण व्यक्ति एक घोड़े की भान्ति एक संवेदनशील स्वामी की सेवा में अपना भार वहन करने में सन्तुष्ट है. अन्य व्यक्ति मित्र मंडलि में बैठ कर हंसी मज़ाक में सुख पाता है. अन्य व्यक्ति अधिक कामुक है और स्त्री सुख की अधिक इच्छा करता है.
भिन्न भिन्न व्यक्तियों की भिन्न भिन्न वृत्तियां होती हैं. परंतु समाज में अपना दायित्व निभाने के लिए सब की प्रतिभाओं का विकास करना चाहिए.

Rigveda: Industrial Management & Training By Subodh Kumar

bhishma

 

 

RV1.5 Industrial Management & Training
Work place atmosphere
1.आ त्वेता निषीदतेन्द्रमभि प्रगायत |
सखाय: स्तोमवाहसः || RV 1.5.1, AV20.68.11
(स्तोमवाहसःसखाय:) आओ आप सब प्रशंसनीय गुणयुक्त कार्य करने में प्रवीण विद्वानों से मित्रभाव से सब मिल कर परस्पर प्रीति के साथ शिल्प विद्या को सिद्ध करने में, (आनिषीदत) एकत्रित हों,(इन्द्रम्‌ अभिप्रगायत) इंद्र के गुणों का उपदेश करें और सुनें कि जिस से वह अच्छी रीति से सिद्ध की हुइ शिल्प विद्या सब को प्रकट हो जाए , और उस से (तु एत) तुम सब लोग सब सुखों को प्राप्त हों .
Let all well in company of qualified competent persons gather in a harmonious friendly cooperative atmosphere, to learn and discuss for successful development of well produced products that bring comfort and welfare to everybody.
Useful & Harmful results
2. पुरूतमं पुरूणामीशानं वार्य्याणाम |
इन्द्रं सोमे सचा सुते || RV 1.5.2, AV20.68.12
(पुरुणाम्‌) आकाश से ले कर पृथिवी तक के सब असंख्य पदार्थों के साधक (वार्य्याणाम) अत्यंत उत्तम वरण करने योग्य सद्गुणों को (ईशानम्‌) रचने में समर्थ, परन्तु (पुरूतमम्‌) दुष्ट स्वभाव वाले जीवों के कर्मों के भोग के निमित्त और (इन्द्रम्‌) जीवमात्र को सुख दु:ख देने वाले पदार्थों के भौतिक गुणों का ( अभिगायत) उपदेश करो . और (तु सुते सोमे सचा) जो सब प्रकार की विद्या से प्राप्त होने योग्य पदार्थों के निमित्त कार्य्य हैं उन को उक्त विद्याओं से सब के उपकार के लिए यथायोग्य युक्त करो.
Find and learn about all physical objects from sky to earth and their properties that can be put to desirable use. And utilize the knowledge of the physical properties objects in nature for welfare of all. But also bring out and speak about the knowledge about the simultaneous harmful and cruel results.
Importance Knowledge –ज्ञान का महत्व
3. स घा नो योग आ भुवत्स राये स पुरन्ध्याम |
गमद्वाजेभिरा स नः || RV 1.5.3,AV20.69.1
सब पदार्थ विद्याओं के ज्ञान के उपयोग से निश्चय ही सुख प्रदान करने के लिए उत्तम समृद्धि के धन अन्न और आवागमन के साधन प्राप्त होते हैं.
Combination of (पुरंध्याम) multidiscipline knowledge (घा) definitely (आ भुवत) results in providing excellent bounties of food, public conveniences of travel for comfort.
सुरक्षा के नियम – Safety Code
4. यस्य संस्थे न वृण्वते हरी समत्सु शत्रवः |
तस्मा इन्द्राय गायत || RV 1.5.4,AV20.69.2
भौतिक पदार्थों और उन की प्रक्रियाओं के सम्भावित दुष्परिणामों के रोकथाम के लिए सुरक्षा के साधनों का प्रचार करो.
Explore and provide information & knowledge about the harmful properties of the physical objects and processes.
Importance of R&D अनुसंधान का महत्व
5. सुतपाव्ने सुता इमे शुचयो यन्ति वीतये |

सोमासो दध्याशिरः || RV 1.5.5,AV20.69.3
(सोमासो दध्याशिर:) अनुसंधान के ज्ञान से (सुतपाव्ने सुता) उत्पन्न हो कर सुख समृद्धि के साधनों की नदियां बह चलती हैं
(सोमासो दध्याशिर:) Results of Research and development (सुतपाव्ने सुता) creat a running stream of products & processes for wellbeing.
Make life comfortable सुखमय जीवन
6. त्वं सुतस्य पीतये सद्यो वृद्धो अजायथाः |
इन्द्र ज्येष्ठ्याय सुक्रतो || RV 1.5.6,AV20.69.4
संसार के पदार्थों के सुख को ग्रहण करने ले लिए विद्या आदि उत्तम ज्ञान से प्रेरित हो कर श्रेष्ठ अत्युत्तम कर्मों का अनुष्ठान करो
Reach the status of senior entrepreneur by utilizing the vast store of knowledge and technology to bring comfort and welfare in life of entire community. .

Aim of education शिक्षा का लक्ष्य
7. आ त्वा विशन्त्वाशवः सोमास इन्द्र गिर्वणः |
शं ते सन्तु प्रचेतसे || RV 1.5.7,AV20.69.5
जीवन को सुखदायी बनाने के लिए तुझ में उत्तम व्याख्यान के ज्ञान तथा प्रशिक्षण से अति तीक्ष्ण बुद्धि और कर्मठ प्रवृत्ति जागृत हो .
(गिर्वणः) By good lectures training (विशन्त्वाशवः सोमास इन्द्र ) fast thinking and action oriented temperament (शं ते सन्तु प्रचेतसे) should develop (आ त्वा) in you
8. त्वां स्तोमा अवीवृधन्‌ त्वामुक्था शतक्रतो |
त्वां वर्धन्तु नो गिरः || RV 1.5.8,AV20.69.6
उन्नति के लिए उत्तम ज्ञान और उपदेश की शिक्षा द्वारा तुम सेंकड़ों काम करने का यश प्राप्त करो
With excellent education, knowledge and training develop the reputation of a multitalented achiever.
Enjoy the infinite bounties of Nature
9. अक्षितोतिः सनेदिमं वाजमिन्द्रः सहस्रिणम |
यस्मिन विश्वानि पौंस्या || RV 1.5.9,AV20.69.7
संसार का समस्त भौतिक ज्ञान प्राप्त कर के प्रकृति की असन्ख्य उपलब्धियों को ग्रहण करों
(अक्षितोतिः) Based on knowledge of universal Truth (यस्मिन विश्वानि पौंस्या) by hard work in this physical world (सनेदिमं वाजमिन्द्रः सहस्रिणम ) share the infinite bounties for comfort and welfare . |

Honesty & Fair play
10. मा नो मर्त्ता अभि द्रुहन तनूनामिन्द्र गिर्वणः |
ईशानो यवया वधम्‌ || RV 1.5.10,AV20.69.8
राग द्वेष भेद भाव स्वार्थ से प्रेरित हम अपनी वाणी और व्यवहार से किसी भी जीवधारी का शोषण और अहित न करें
Motivated by greed, personal grudge and ego clash do not allow your conduct and speech to cause hurt or exploit anybody.

SOUL, MAGIC, GAMBLING & POLYGAMY ARE IN VEDAS ?

soul_body

SOUL, MAGIC, GAMBLING & POLYGAMY

Author : Pt Dharmadev Vidyamartand

Besides discussing the notions of transmigration of soul and theory of action, we will discuss in this chapter, whether there was magic, drinking, gambling, and polygamy during the Vedic Age.

TRANSMIGRATION OF SOUL

An impression is sought to have been created by the authors of the Vedic Age that the Vedic Aryas had neither definite knowledge of the transmigration of soul nor were they interested in its theoretical aspects.

For instance it is written in this book:-

“ As the Rigvedic Aryas were full of the “Joíe de viver” (joy of life), they were not particularly interested in the life after death, much less had they any special doctrines about it. We can, therefore , glean only a few notices of life beyond, that are scattered throughout the Rigveda. In our search for any reference implicit or explicit, to rebirth or transmigration, we come across only a few doubtful passages. According to R.V.1.164.30, the soul (Jivah) of the dead one moves in its own power; the immortal one having a common origin with the mortal one (the body). But this transmigration is not certain.”

“So we may conclude that only the germs of the conception of rebirth were there, and those developed either naturally or through the influence of ideas current among the original tribes with whom the Aryans came into contact”

But careful perusal of the text will show that there are clear references to soul and its transmigration in the Vedas.

In Rigvedas it is clearly stated that the soul which inhabits this ephemeral body, is eternal, permanent and true:

rig 6.9.4

(“Behold this (individual spirit) the first being which enjoys (consequence of his actions) as it is the immortal light placed within the mortal frame. That has manifested itself. This immortal soul is staying (in the body) while it seems growing with the growth of its body.”

The theory of rebirth also finds expression in the following mantra from the Rigveda:-

rebirth in rigveda

(May I have glance at the indestructible Lord of the sense organs (i.e. the individual soul) which ever walk, through the pathways of coming (birth) and departure (death); it traverses its path with its body and even without it and having covered itself with its actions (i.e. in accordance with its good and evil actions), it comes (takes birth) again and again in the various worlds.”

GOD AND SOUL

The relation of soul with God and difference between the two have been clearly enunciated in the following mantra:-

rig 1.64.20

(Like two birds, there are two spirits i.e. the finite and the Supreme which, knit with the bonds of friendship, reside on the same tree (of the material universe). One of the twain (i.e. the finite spirit)

enjoys the sweet ripe fruit (and also the bitter one) produced by his good or bad actions, whereas the other (i.e. the Supreme Spirit) simply looks all around without enjoying its fruitage.”

THE SOUL THROUGH THE AGES

There is clear description of the soul incarnating itself in different bodies according to one’s own actions:-

soul 1

“O individual soul! in accordance with thine actions, thou assumes the form of a woman and that of a man, sometimes thou becomes a virgin, thou walkest with the help of 21 staff when thy body becomes old and frail, thou takest birth again and again as thy face is turned towards all directions (in accordance with thy actions).

soul 2

(This individual soul, sometimes it becomes their father and sometimes their son too, and sometimes becomes their elder brother and sometimes it even becomes their younger brother. Verily, the one self of luminous soul dwelling within the mind, has taken birth before and verily it again enters the womb of the mother.)

soul 3

(O God of life, please give us eyes again in our future life and give us breath, in this world and confer on us all necessary objects of enjoyment; O most Gracious Being! May we see the rising sun for  a long time, be kind upon us and give us blessings,)

In the following mantra from Yajurveda (4. 1 5), a devotee plays to God for a good life in the birth to come:

yajurveda 4.15

(May I receive, through the grace of God, my mind again in future life, may I have life again, may I get breathe again, may my soul return again and may I be the possessor of eyes and ears again in future life; may Self Refulgent God, keep us safe from misfortune and dishonor.)

In Atharva Veda, the use of स उ जायते पुन: most certainly confirms the Vedic theory of transmigration of soul:

soul 4

(The individual soul wanders within the womb of mother and takes birth again and again in bodies of intelligent persons. It exists in past, present and future; when it becomes a father, it again enters into the body of a son with the powers of his actions.)

Reproduced below are two mantras from Atharveda in this connection:-

soul 5

(May the earth give us birth again and may the shining heavenly region and the atmosphere restore the same to us; may Soma, All Creating God, give us body again (after our death) and may the All Nourishing God, lead us on the path of peace and happiness.)

And also:-

soul 6.1

soul 6.2

(May I again receive my sense organs in my future life and may I receive my spirit, together with worldly possessions and knowledge Divine so that I may perform fire-offering on the altars and may ever attain prosperity.) `

THEORY OF ACTION

In Vedas there is a great emphasis on action and industry. lt is clearly mentioned in the vedas that one cannot achieve progress and prosperity through mere performance of yajnas, singing euologies to God or offering prayers to him.

The Vedic Age, however, seeks to create an impression that devotees have been instructed in the Vedas to seek more and more gifts from God by flattering songs and ritualistic sacrifices.

But this is not true. For instance, it is clearly mentioned in the Rigveda that God never befriends a person Who avoids hard work or industry :

rig 4.33.15

ln Yujurveda, there is clear instruction to desire a long life full of action:

soul in yajur

PRAYERS FOR PURITY

In Vedic Age, very serious allegation has been made against the Rishis :-

“Absence of evil is not what they pray for. Their supreme desire is to triumph over poverty and resistance”

In the 97th  hymn of the First mandala of the Rigveda, there are 8 mantras, each of which ends with अप न: शोशुचदघम (O God destroy our sins). Some of these mantras are reproduced below:-

prayer 1

(O God, may we become yours. Destroy our sins.)

prayer 2

(May with Thy mercy, O Omnipresent Lord, all our sins be destroyed -may we never commit sins again).

prayer 3

(Just as sea is crossed through ship, may we cross this miserable world through Thy Grace – May our sins be destroyed.)

POLYGAMY AND VEDAS

Of many misconceptions about the Vedas propagated by the authors of Vedic Age, one pertains to polygamy.

It is written in the Vedic Age:-

“The Rigveda certainly permits polygamy, though monogamy may have been the rule. Whether monogamy developed from polygamy in the Rigvedic Age as Zimmer thinks in “Altindísche Leben “, or whether polygamy is secondary as Weber believes in “Indische Studeíern” cannot be decided-Probably polygamy, though allowed, was practically confined to the “Rajanya” class. Polyandry is not referred to anywhere in the Rigveda.”

It may be stressed that monogamy is considered best in the Vedas. Some of the mantras indicating this ideal have also been referred in the Vedic Age which also acknowledges that monogamy was the rule though polygamy was allowed. For instance, in Rigvedas 1.124.32 and 1O.74.4  जायेव पत्य उशती सुवासा: means knowledge reveals itself to the scholars, just as a woman draped in her best attire, presents herself before her husband. It may also be mentioned here that the words जाया and पत्या are both singular in number and, therefore, clearly indicate monogamy.

In the following mantra from the Rigveda God has been compared to a “chaste woman” of a noble character :

rigvedic god

(He who is like the sun, the supporter of the universe, who abides on earth like a king with good friends, who is like heroes at home- and who is like the irreproachable Wife, beloved of her husband.)

In the following mantra from Rigveda, one of the four comparisons which have been made to express a devotee’s desire for God to turn to him is that of a husband for wife :-

rigveda god 1

“As kine turn to the Village, as warriors to their steeds, as loving milk-giving cows to their calves, a husband to the Wife, so may the Deity, the Upholder of the heavens, Lord of all Bliss, turn towards us”.

In the hymn about marriage in Rigveda (10.85.30) a bride is enjoined to work for the happiness and pleasure of her husband :-

rig 10.85.30

(Shining like the sun, oh, bride, full of tapas, ascend this chariot and go to thy husband”s home to add to His pleasure and happiness.)

In the following mantra, the bride has been blessed to live with her husband and never be separated :

rigveda god 2

(May you always live together happily in your home-may you lead a happy, prosperous married life.)

In the following mantra both husband and wife make a declaration that their hearts will be united with each other like water which is cool and peaceful.)

rigveda god 3

ln the following mantra, the Wife says to her husband :

rigveda god 4

(Establish me firmly in your heart. May our hearts be united.)

rigveda god 5

(May you be mine entirely. May you never even praise other women in my presence.) ‘

The following mantras may also be quoted in support of this Vedic ideal of polygamy :

rig 14.2.64

In these mantras also, there is an instruction to the couples to love each other like “chakva-chakvi ” (love birds) and use sweet words for each other.)

Because of a few similies in the Rigveda, the authors of the Vedic Age have tried to establish the existence of polygamy during the Vedic period which is very erroneous. A large number of quotations against polygamy in the vedas render such interpretations infructuous.

For instance, take the following mantra, in which a person, tortured by the worldly agonies, has been compared to a person annoyed or troubled by co-wives :-

cowives

And also in the following mantra, it is written that a person, having two wives, is pressed from both sides like a neighing horse driving a chariot which is pressed between two spokes :-

two spokes

While there is provision for only one marriage in the Vedas, in exceptional cases, “Niyoga” (temporary alliance of wife with a stranger), is permitted with a limited purpose.

GAMBLING/ DRINKING IN THE VEDIC PERIOD

Vedic Age describes dice playing as one of the principal amusements of the Vedic period. It says :-

“Dice was another amusement. The number of dice, the method of dice playing and the names of the throws are all described in detail in the various texts of this (Yajur Veda) period A ritual game of dice is played at the Agnyadheya and the Rajasuya  cennonies – so gambling is probably sought to be restricted by elevating racing and dicing to the rank of religious ceremonies.”

The book has, however, failed to mention where the details of dice playing have been given in Yajurveda. We cannot believe in what they say unless they produce some evidence in support of their contention. Such an evidence is impossible to produce. (because it is not there at all.)

Moreover there is another reason for not believing them because what they have said is quite contrary to the injunctions against gambling in the hymn l 0.34 of the Rigveda (which is entirely devoted to this subject). ln some of the mantras of this hymn, it is clearly stated that gambling bums the heart of a person like the charcoal which though apparently cool from outside, is potentially destructive.

lt is also said that the family members of a gambler-his parents, Wife, brother etc, also disown him when he runs into debt because of this game :

gambling 1

In the end there is clear instruction against gambling in the most unequivocal terms : अक्षौर्या दिव्य (O man, no gambling.)

A gambler is told that he would enjoy the blessings and pleasures of the family life only when he earns money by industry, by such work as agriculture :

agriculture

It there is a provision anywhere for gambling or dice playing on the occasion of some Yajnas, it should be considered only as an interpolation without the sanction or authority of the vedas; it is, therefore, unauthentic and without merit.

One might say that even a highly religious man like Yudhistira used to gamble. But does it go to prove that gambling is a meritorious thing? We may recall what Lord Krishna had told him: if he were in Dwaraka he would never have let him indulge in this game asserting that its consequences are disasterous :

mahabharat 5

mahabharat 6

In these shlokas he counts gambling among the four vices which destroy a man’s beauty and his wealth (the other three being women, hunting and drinking).

DRINKING

Vedas have clearly instructed against drinking in the same way as against gambling.

Among the seven vices (even one of which makes a man sinner) is also drinking :

drinking 1

Yaskacharya has described these seven vices as follows in Nírukta :

drinking 2

(Theft, corruption, killing of righteous persons, abortion, falshehood, repeating a bad action and drinking.)

In Rigveda there is a mantra which described how the men who drink do not feel ashamed even in undressing themselves and looking at each other in naked bodies.

drinking 3

Drinking and gambling have been described in Rigveda as actions which lead to अधर्म (unrighteousness).

drinking 4

In Atharva Veda (6.7O. 1) meat eating, drinking and gambling have been placed in the same category and described as condemnable and prohibited :-

drinking 5

It is alleged in the “Vedic Age” that the risis remained intoxicated under the influence of “soma” which was misunderstood as a kind of a liquor.

In fact, the word Soma सोम: which occurs in the following mantras stands for God, who is described as the producer of all herbs, water, firmament, earth, sky, fire, sun and air illuminator and Master of the whole universe and Omnipresent.

Addressing God a devotee says; “King of this entire Universe, O Lord, Thou who art, Omniscient and Knower of everything and Repository of all virtues and Father of all “devas° purify me :

drinking 6

Can even an idiot take the word “Soma ” for a herb or a medicine in this context? There is not an iota of doubt that this word has been used only for God because He alone is and can be Omnipresent, Omniscient and the Master of the universe.

While the word ‘Soma ‘ has been used for God, at times it is also meant to denote affectionate devotion to God which is coupled with the true knowledge of His attributes. For instance, in Rigveda’s 9.108.1, it is stated:

rig 9.108.1

Here ‘soma ` is described as spiritual intoxication induced by true devotion(इन्द्राय क्रतु वितभो ).

This spiritual intoxication is naturally different from the intoxication induced by liquor or drinks.

In Rigveda and Samveda, the word soma has been described thus :-

drinking 7

(This soma which is full of sweetness ( मधुमान) is purifier( पावक: ) inducer of virtues ( देवावी ) and destroyer of all impure sentiment’s ( अधं शंसहा )

lt is clear from the above that this soma is not used for simple liquor but Spiritual intoxication which results from devotion, knowledge and purification.

In the same Vedas, Soma has been invoked for purification, strength and intellects :

drinking 8

Such a description of the ordinary liquor, which pollutes the intellects, is quite incongruous.

The following mantra, which occurs both in the Rigveda as well as Samaveda, gives a very clear cut account of Soma :

drinking 9

(O, Soma, the Illuminater  and Purifier, Thou proclaim-est immortality for all.)

This mantra leaves in no doubt about the true meaning, rather nature, of Soma-which is a declaration of Conquest over death (i.e., immortality).

The following mantras, from Rigveda also confirms that besides God, the word “Soma` means spiritual intoxication :-

drinking 10

ln the above mantras the word `soma’ has been described as giver of Peace, purifier, born of Truth and embodiment of knowledge etc.

Hundreds of mantras can be quoted to prove that the meaning of the word ‘ Soma” as interpreted by contributors to the Vedic Age is completely wrong. Their contention that the Risis remained drunk all the times is, therefore, completely baseless.

||इति||

 

 

“ARYA” AND ‘ANARYA’

meaning of arya

 “ARYA” AND ‘ANARYA’

Author : Pt Dharmdev Vidyamartand 

Western scholars have repeatedly said in their works that Aryas came from outside (most probably from Middle Asia) and committed a lot of atrocities on aborigins (Dravidians) who were called by Aryas as “Das “ or “Dasus ” or Anaryas.

Their view also finds its echo in the “Vedic Age” in which it is stated : “The Aryan invaders or immigrants found in India two groups of people, one whom they named the ‘Dasas ‘or ‘Dasyus ‘, and the other, ‘Nishadas ‘.”

Who are Aryans? Do Aryans form any race? First of all we will try to find out the real meaning of the word Arya. This word has been defined thus in Rigveda’s 10.65.11 :

rig 10.65.11

(Aryans are those, who practice on this earth, the vows of truth, non-violence, purity etc.) The word आर्य comes from the root ऋ which means गति प्रापणयो. According to this root, Aryas are those who have acquired knowledge, who are ever marching towards the path of progress and properity and who are actively engaged in God realisation.

sanskrit dictionary

(i.e. Arya means one who is respectable, revered, religious minded, a generous person, who is above the considerations of caste, creed and colour, who is self-poised and quiet because of implicit faith in God, who always follows the righteous path and never swerves from what is just and right, who is conscientious in performance of his duty and who avoids all that is sinful and unethical or immoral.)

Mahabharat has thus defined the “Arya”:

mahabharat arya

(He is Arya who does not inflame the hatred or jealousy once subsided, who is neither egoistic nor depressed, who does not commit sin even in misery, who does not show too much happiness even in prosperity or gets out of control; who never takes delight in others” troubles and who never regrets after giving anything in charity.)

It is clear that anybody who embodies these qualities is, आर्य irrespective of what family, society or country he belongs to or Whether his colour is black, white or wheatish.

According to Maharshi Vyas, an Arya manifests eight qualities which are :

vyas and arya

(That man is Arya who is a man of knowledge, ever-contented, self-controlled, truthful, disciplined, charitable, kind hearted and polite.)

In Nirukta Maharshi Yashka has defined the word आर्य as ईश्वरपुत्र (the son of God). The word आर्य means स्वामी (Master) परमेश्वर (God). (अर्य, स्वामी वैश्ययो: ) Thus, one who is the real son of God and obeys His commands, is आर्य. In Vedas, Upanishadas, Ramayana, Mahabharat and Gita, the word आर्य is used for a gentleman and dasyu दस्यु for the wicked.

ln Balmiki Ramayana, Narada uses the word Arya for Rama :

valmiki ramayan and arya

(Rama was religious minded, a man of pure living, looking at everybody with equal eyes and lovable like moon.)

Keeping all this in view Sri Aurbindo said :

“The word Arya expresses a particular ethical and social order of well-governed life, candour, courtesy, nobility, straight dealing, courage, gentleness, purity, humanity, compassion, protection of the weak, liberality, observance of social duties, eagerness for knowledge, respect for the wise and the learned and the social accomplishments.

“There is no word in human speech that has a nobler history. The Arya is he who strives and overcomes all outside him and within him that stands opposed to human advance. Self-conquest is the first law of his nature. He overcomes mind and its habits and he does not live in a shell of ignorance, inherited prejudices, customary ideas, pleasant opinion, but knows how to seek and choose, to be large and flexible in intelligence even as he is firm and strong in his will, for in everything, he seeks truth and freedom.

“The Arya is a Worker and a warrior. Always he fights for the coming of the kingdom of God within himself and the world.”

WHO IS DASYU ?

The word dasyu दस्यु has its root as दसु  उपक्षये Giving its deravative meaning Yaskaracharya writes in Nirukta (7.23) :

nirukta 7.23

(He is Dasyu who has very few virtues and who causes obstruction to good actions like the performance of the Yajnas)

In the Vedas, Dasyu has been described as follows :

veda and dasyu

(Dasyu is one who is cruel, hard,selfish, and who entertains thoughts of falsehood, violence, theft, deception etc.)

In Rigveda 10.65 .11  Dasyu has been stated as one who has no faith in the existence of God; but is dacoit, a thief, on betrayer of confidence, foolish, licentious, aggressor, obstructor of good deeds, selfish etc :

veda and dasyu 1

There is a great emphasis in the Vedas on the elimination of such Dasyus as they are a great threat to the society.

In Rigveda l.ll7.3 the adjective used for Dasyus is आशिवस्व (who creates trouble and causes misery). In Rigveda 4.l 6.9) दस्यु, has been described as मायावान अब्रह्मा दस्यु: (who indulges in deception and self-deception) who has no faith in the teachings of the Vedas and who is narrow-minded.

It is clearly stated in the Vedas that the difference between the Aryas and Dasyus is mainly because of their respective actions. No discrimination is, otherwise, made on the ground of caste or creed etc.

There is also instruction इन्द्र (or a king) to purify the Dasyu and uplift him forgiving his past sins.

In the followqing mantra from Rigveda (6.22. lO) for instance, it is clearly stated :

rig 6.22.10

(O. Indra, you have the power to uplift the Dasyus engaged in obstructing the religious acts and make them Arya i.e. noble, religious minded, dutiful and men of noble character.)

In the Vedas the idea of uplifting of the impure and converting all the people of the world into Aryas occurs repeatedly at several places, Here are three mantras embodying this idea :-

veda and dasyu 2

(In the first mantra righteous truthful scholars have been asked to uplift( उन्नयथ) those who are fallen

( अवहितम) and to inject new life ( पुनःजीवयथ ) in those who have committed sins or crimes ( आग: चक्रुषम् ) In the second mantra, God ordains the righteous to convert the whole universe into Arya by increasing their own will power and acquiring knowledge and wealth, by being active and freeing themselves from all selfishness and narrowness. कृण्वन्तोविश्वमार्यम is the motto of all the Aryas.

In accordance with this motto, it is the duty of all Aryas to make every effort to tum Dasyus into Aryas.

In the third mantra, a devotee prays to God, “O the preserver of noble persons, either you keep away from us those who are वृजिनम (sinners), स्तेनम(thieves) or let them also tread the righteous path.”

From these instructions and prayers, it is clear that Aryas tried to bring even Dasyus into their fold, but if they found them to be too wicked and harmful for the society as a whole, they considered it to be their duty to eliminate them. while defining Arya or Dasyus Vedas never took into consideration the lineage of a person as is clear from the following mantra :-

veda and dasyu 3

(O, the noble among the people, Indra, you destroy both the types of enemies- first, who by nature, put obstruction to performance of good deeds or those who, though born in good families, deviate from the righteous path and start indulging in low actions.

It has been rightly observed in Mahabharata that Dayus belong to all Varnas and Ashramas:-

mahabharat and dasyu

lt is thus clear that to regard Dasyus, Dasas and Panins to be of different race from Aryas and to believe that they were the original inhabitants of India, is absolutely without foundation. There is also no truth in the contention that Vedas express any feeling of animosity towards them.

If at some places such words as असिक्नीत्वचम्  have been used for them, they are not meant to be taken literally. If we take them in their proper context, they would be found to have a figurative meaning.

Even when the word “black” has been used for Dasyus the  reference is to those who are पाणी (पणव्यवहारे) selfish, अक्रतून (who have no faith) and अयज्यून(who do not perform Yajna (Rjgvedas 7.6.3).

Zardushta says in Ustavaiti :-

“That I will ask thee, tell me it right, thou living God, who is religious and who the impious, after who l wish to inquire, who of the two has the black spirit and who the bright one? Is it not right to consider the impious man who attacks me and thee, to be a black one.”

Now in the above quotation, the wicked persons have been firstly described as ‘black spirit’ and later indentified as black. Such figurative use of the word “black” “convinces us that it does not always denote colour of one’s skin rather his character.

The difference between the “Aryas` and the “Dasyus” was based on their qualities, actions and temperament and not on “racial differences”. Even Dasyus could become Aryas by reforming themselves.

Such admission has also been made atleast once in Vedic Age” itself:

“Atleast one Dasa Chief, however, named Balbuth had adopted Aryan culture and even patronised Brahmín singers and risis.”

We do not agree with the historical aspect of this episode. We have given this quotation only to drive home the point that Aryans had not come from outside.

In this context the authors of the Vedic Age comment :

“It is significant that as a rule, Indra himself has been made to combat the Dasa priest on his own initiative and not in the course of rendering merely routine assistance to Aryan chiefs. For it shows

that even in the heyday of Rigvedic culture, there was no longer a living memory of the first encounter with the aboriginal races”

The truth of the matter is that there were no such racial wars between India and dasyus or dasas. Aryans had not come from outside. They were the inhabitants of this country.

Says Swami Dayanand in his book “The Light of Truth.”

“No name had been given to this country (India) before and no one lived in it till the Aryas came to it from Tibet soon after the creation”

Dealing with the beliefthatflryas had come from Iran and the Rakshas lived in jungles before and that Aryas used to consider themselves as Devatas and there were battles between Aryas and Asuras (known as “Devasur Sangram), he further asserts :

“This is absolutely incorrect because Aryas and Asuras have been depicted in the Rigveda as :-

rig 1.51.8

(i.e. Aryas are those who are religious minded, learned and noble while Asuras or Dasas are those who are wicked, irreligious and ignorant.)

P.T. Srinivas, a well-known South Indian scholar, has also maintained in his book “Dravídian Studies ” that the “Difference between the ”Aryas” and “Dasyus’ is not racial out based on their respective qualities, actions and temperament”

He writes :-

“The Aryas and Dasyus or Dasas are referred to not as indicating different races ……… ..The words refer not to race but to cult ……. . .The Dasyus are without rites, fireless, non-sacrificers, without prayers, without rites, haters of prayers. Thus the difference between Aryas and Dasyus was not one of race, but ofcult.”

V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, another South Indian scholar, says :

“The fact is that the Dasyus were not non-Aryans. The theory that the Dasyus – Dravidians inhabited the Panj ab and the Ganges valley at the time of the so-called Aryan invasion of India, and overcome by the latter, they fled to South India and adopted it as their home cannot stand. To say that all India was a wild country once, and that it was civilized by the invading Dravidians first and by the invading Aryans next, cannot carry conviction home ……….. .

“In the same way we have to took upon the theory of the Dravidian race. If the Aryan race theory is a myth, the theory of the Dravidian race is a greater myth. The word Dravida is the name for the speakers of a group of South Indian languages, Tamil, Malayalam, Kanarese and Telugu.”

Muir is among the Western Scholars who have written quite a lot on “Aryas” “Dasyus” or Dravidians.

In Original Sanskrit Texts (Vol. II p. 387) Muir writes :

“I have gone over the names of Dasyus orAsuras mentioned in the Rigveda with the view of discovering whether any of them could be regarded as of non-Aryan or indigenous origin, but I have not observed anything that may appear to be of this character.”

German scholar Max Muller writes about Dasyus :-

“Dasyu simply means enemy; for instance, Indra is praised because he destroyed the “Dasyu” and protected the Aryan colour.”

At another place writing about मातुधान and राक्षस he writes :-

“They (the epithets) are too general to allow us the inference of any etymological conclusions.”

The expression “Aryan” was also given currency by him but in the later years of his life in 1888, he writes :-

“I have declared again and again that if I say Aryan, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair nor skull; I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language ………… . To me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar”

Famous compiler of the Sanskrit Dictionary Roth says :-

“lt is but seldom, if at all, that the explanation of ‘Dasyu’ as referring to the non-Aryans, the barbarians, is advisable.”

In his book “Brief View of the Caste System of the North West Provinces and Oudh”, another Western scholar Nesfield clearly writes :-

“There is no division of the people as the Aryan conquerors of India and the aborigines of the country; that division is modem and that there is essential unity of the Indian races. The great majority of

the Brahmins are not of lighter complexion or of finer or better red features than any other caste or distinct in race and blood from the scavangers who swept the roads.”

Likewise many other quotations can be given to prove that some Western scholars themselves have contradicted the theory of racial differences between the Aryas and the Dravidians.

ARYAN AND DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES

Most people hold the view that South Indian languages like Tamil, Kannda, Malyalam, and Telugu, which are collectively known as Dravidian languages, have no genetic connection with the Sanskrit language; that they are completely two sets of independent languages. This view supported and encouraged by many Western scholars for extraneous reasons, is not true. This view in fact had been mostly propagated by those who wanted to create misunderstanding and animosity among the people of the North and the South, between Dravidians and the Aryas.

For instance, South Indian scholar Tamby Pillai quoting Dr. Taylor, writes in “Tamilían Antíquary” (Vol. II No. 2)

“It was proved years ago by Dr. Taylor that a TAMILIAN Language now represented by its most cultivated branch in the South Tamil constituted the original staple of all the languages of India. The existence of a Tamilian substratum in all the modem dialects of India and of the profound influence, which the classical Tamil has exercised on the forrnation and development of both the Vedic and classical Sanskrit, is gradually coming to be recognised by students of Indian philosophy.”

Almost similar view has been expressed by Dr. Gundert and other Western scholars like Rhys Davids.

T.S. Shesh Iyangar, writes in his book “The Ancient Dravidians”:-

“Prof. Rhys Davids in his book “Buddhist India” commenting on the evolution of the Aryan languages of India maintains that the Vedic Sanskrit is largely mixed up With primitive Dravidían.”

But we consider such views to be thoroughly incorrect and ridiculous. With so many Sanskrit words to be found in Bangla, Gujarati, Marathi, Panjabi and Pali, we think it is unnecessary to prove that the mother of all these languages is Sanskrit. It is no less blasphemous to consider any of the South Indian languages, even Tamil, to be the origin of these languages.

I had the opportunity of living in South for over 20 years.

During the course of my stay there, I applied myself to the learning of these languages.

On the basis of my study I have no hesitation in saying that so many words in these languages have their origin in Sanskrit.

KANNAD AND SANSKRIT

Some of the Kannad words which are purely Sanskrit words are :-

kannad and sanskrit

There would be no exaggeration in saying that 75% of words in Telugu version of the Mahabharata are originally Sanskrit words. Some of the Telugu words which have actually been taken from Sanskrit are :

telagu and sanskrit

To call such a language (which is full of Sanskrit words) as an independent Dravidian language and to say it has no links with Sanskrit, is very erroneous. Unfortunately people in North India,

who are not acquainted with South Indian languages, are easily misled by such false notions.

MALAYALAIVI AND SANSKRIT :-

In Malyalam language there are more Sanskrit words than even in Kannad and Talugu.

Former speaker of the Lok Sabha the late Anant Shayanam Ayanger, had once rightly obseved :-

“The Sanskrit was the fountain head of all Indian languages. All Indian languages were offshoots of Sanskrit. Bengali and Telugu have about 75% Sanskrit words, while Malayalam about 90 percent. The only change was that the Sanskrit words have been absorbed with slight changes here and there.”

Some of the Malyalam words, which have their origin in Sanskrit, are :-

malyalam and sanskrit

It is also said that Tamil has an independent language having no relation with Sanskrit. To illustrate this, reference been has been Kamban Ramayana.” But it is merely an illusion. Not only in modem but also in old Tamil literature, there are many Sanskrit words. The colloquial Tamil language is also full of Sanskrit words. If we read “Kamban Ramayan ” carefully, we will find that there are many Sanskrit words in their distorted form.

In the ancient Tamil Sastra “विरूधवे”, there are many Sanskrit words like नीराह (which means to take bath etc) In नालार तिरुवाम भाषी which is considered to be Tamil Veda, there are many Sanskrit words like नैटटेकरने तिरुवाम माषी etc.

प्रकाश (light) आनंद (happiness) पूर्ति (fulfilment) are all pure Sanskrit words. In daily language also जलम{(for water) and आम(for yes) are actually Sanskrit words. Likewise many more such words can be added.

Because of shortage of alphabets in the Tamil language, Sanskrit words which find their place it it, cannot be written. This is why separate script has come into existence for Sanskrit words.

In Tamil words like नगर (town) शिव धनुष (Shiva’s arrow) अतिशोध्र(very fast)  जनकपुत्री(Janak’s daughter)  विवाह(marriage) प्रजा (subject) दम्पोती  (couple) संतोष (contenment) have their origin in Sanskrit.

These illustration sufficc to contradict the view that Tamil has nothing to do with Sanskrit. According to some Tamil as well as Sanskrit scholars, at least 50% words in Tamil have been taken from Sanskrit.

Thus we see that क is made to serve the purpose of

This is the reason why some purely Sanskritised words are found in their corrupted form in Tamil.

For instance अग्निम{cannot be pronounced in Tamil because it does not occur among the alphabets o this language as क serves the purpose क, ख, ग,घ | “अग्नि” therefore, will be written and pronounced in Tamil as आवनि.

Even भगवान is spoken in Tamil as पकवान because प  is used for प,फ,व,ग,घ . EI’ and E5 for H-7, E, ’11, U. Those who know little Sanskrit can easily find the Sanskrit origin of such Tamil words.

Likewise Sanskrit word मंडलमis Written and pronounced in Tamil as मण्डलं and अग्रजन्मन as आक्कर जन्मन  (It is because in Tamil ट is used for ट,ठ,ड, ढ  and च for च, छ,ज,झ |

The main ancient grammar of Tamil was written by Telkappíyanar, a son of Jamadagni and a disciple of Agastya. His contemporary पनम्वनार I has made it clear in the introduction to his grammar book that Telkappiyanar (whose second name was Trinadhaymagni, has full command over lndia’s Sanskrit grammar.

T.R. Shesh Ayyangar, has written in his book “The Ancient Dravidians” that this grammar was written not later than 4th century B.C. German scholar B.C. Burnell writes in his book the “Aindra school of Sanskrit Grammaríans “published in 1875, that this Tamil Grammar was based on the tradition set by Sanskrit grammar by lndra.

Telkappiyanar”s grammar Was translated by Dr. P.S. Subrahmaniam Sastri. In his introduction, he says about this ancient scholar :- “Telkappiyanar was conversant with Vedas, Dharma Sastras, Kama Sutra, early Alankara literature, the source book of Natya Sastra, Pratisakhya works and Nirukta in Sanskrit literature and made use of them in planning his grammar book.”

Thus we see that it is not because of a few sanskrit words in Tamil but because of similarly in Sanskrit and Tamil in respect of grammar, sound, sentence structure etc. that a close relationship exists between the two.

The author of Kannad a Grammar, Naga Varma “belonging to l2th century) has described Tamil, Telugu and Kannada languages as the daughters of Mother Sanskrit. The author of the Telugu grammar (belonging the 13th century), Ketana, has stated that Sanskrit is the Mother of all languages. The author of the Malayalam grammar belonging to the 14th century writes :-

kannad grammer and sanskrit

(Sanskrit is eternal and all other languages have their beginning and an end. Sometimes, the words in other languages can be easily traced to their Sanskrit origin and sometimes it is difficult to find out their origin. Examples of this have been given by the author of Malayalam Grammar in “Sanskrit Lilatilakam”

The authors of “A history of Telugu Literature” in the “Heritage of India” series have stated :-

“An analysis of Telugu, as it has been for centuries, confirms the traditional view that Telugu is derived from Sanskrit”

Dr. Narayan Rao has also expressed the same view in “History of the Telugu Language” :-

“Telugu is one of the descendants of a main Aryan Dialect.”

L. Ravi Venna has, in his book “आर्य द्रविड़ भाषा कलूटे परक्पर संबंधम” given a list of 700 Malayalam words with their Sanskrit origin.

This relationship between Sanskrit and other Dravidian languages shows how ridiculous is the view of the authors of the Vedic Age and others, who have tried to depict these languages as completely independent.

In this context it will not be out of place, to stress relation between Tamil Veda with Vedic Scriptures. It is not known with any certainty as to when The Tamil Veda was written. It is, however, believed that it was written by a Tamil Saint Tiruvalluvar in the First Century. It contains teachings on spiritual, social, political matters which appear to have been drawn from Vedic Scriptures.

We are bound to be reminded of many Sanskrit verses and passages while reading Tamil Veda. We are sure that the author of the Tamil scripture would have certainly known and read the Indian scriptures and derived inspiration from them”

In the “Vedic Age” attempt has been made at several places to establish the superiority of Dravidian civilization over the Vedic civilization. For instance, it says that Dravidian speaking mediterranean people in India were responsible for cities and city culture for a real civilisation in the true sense of the word including international trade.”

First of all, it is still doubtful that the Harappa and Mohenjodaro civilisation was influenced by Dravidians, because their script is still difficult to decipher and even these authors themselves are not sure about it.

This is a very controversial subject. Several scholars are of the view that Aryas themselves were responsible for building these cities. We, who consider Dravidians as the offshoots of Aryas, consider this whole controversy to be meaningless.

Moreover it should not be forgotten that even people in the Ramayana era were very competent in building big houses and cities. There are descriptions of big and palatial bungalows and palaces in Vedas too.

rig 2.4.3

Here there is mention of thousand pillared places in which the King and Prime Minister took their seat along with the ministers of the assembly.

ath 9.3.21

(Here there is reference to the ten roomed dwelling houses.)

Those who have read about the cities in Ramayana with their big expansive broadways, palatial storeys pirched with jewels, and fitted with thousands of canons, big gardens and trees etc., find it impossible to believe in the theory that Aryans learnt the architecture or building houses from the Dravidians. lt is mentioned that ambassadors and traders from different countries used to live there. There were also theatre houses exclusively for women.

Even description of Indraprastha falsifies the contention of the authors of the ‘Vedic Age” that the art of city building and civilisation were the contributions of the Dravidians. It is claimed that Dravidians were so advanced that they used to undertake Voyages on the ship and do trade transactions with others.

Description of such ships already exists in the vedas :-

veda and ship

As pointed out by Dr. Radha Kamud Mukaerjee in his book “Shipping in Ancient lndia”, “Aryas used to travel by ships and transact business with people from other countries”

||इति||

 

Hatred for Hindus

Hatred for Hindus

Source:  See more at: http://www.thefridaytimes.com/tft/hatred-for-hindus/#sthash.bP8mAB3V.dpuf ( Pakistan Independant weekly newspaper )

There are over 35,000 Hindus living in Larkana, making up around nine percent of the city’s population. And so when the ever-ready Muslim mob conjured the blasphemy card, in turn torching a temple and a dharamshala in the city on March 16, the religious tension in the city was as palpable as it gets. The reverberations of said tension were felt in Osta Muhammad and Dera Murad Jamali as well, as the Pakistani Muslim’s ancestral animosity towards Hindus, coupled with a baseless allegation of Holy Quran’s desecration, spilt bigotry all over the country.

It is very important for Pakistani Muslims (97 percent of the population) to differentiate themselves from Hindus. After all it’s precisely this difference that became our state’s raison d’etre in 1947. And differentiating is the first step en route to the development of hatred that eventually inflates into bigotry.

For the average Pakistani Muslim this bigotry wards off the increasingly looming identity crisis, and reaffirms the illusions of historical and religious grandeur.

Mehmood Ghaznavi was Shia-phobic

The destruction of the Somnath Temple in 1,025 AD by Mahmud Ghaznavi is one of the “proudest” moments in the “history of Pakistan” that ostensibly began when the first Muslim (Muhammad bin Qasim) entered the region in the 8th century. During his endeavour to destroy the temple, Ghaznavi also butchered 50,000 Hindus – about the same number of people that the Pakistani Taliban have obliterated in over a decade with significantly deadlier arsenal. Such is the status of destroying a Hindu temple in defining the ideology of Pakistan that the fact that Ghaznavi invaded Multan in 1,005 AD to ruthlessly massacre Ismaili Shias is conveniently forgotten.

Ghaznavi was Shia-phobic, a murderer and plunderer; however, his massacre of Hindus and destruction of temples elevates his status to a ‘national’ hero even though he had died 900 years before the idea of this nation was conceived. It goes without saying that had Ghaznavi been alive he would have been very proud of the mob that destroyed the Hindu temple in Larkana.

An excerpt from Tipu Sultan’s – another hero and role model for Pakistanis – letter to Bekal’s governor, Budruz Zuman Khan in 1790 tells us more about him than the thousands of Hindu massacres that he orchestrated and the multiple coerced conversions that he oversaw;

“Don’t you know I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam? I am determined to march against that cursed Raman Nair (Rajah of Travancore) very soon. Since I am overjoyed at the prospect of converting him and his subjects to Islam, I have happily abandoned the idea of going back to Srirangapatanam now.”

From Ziauddin Barani’s Fatwa-i-Jahandari calling for “an all-out struggle against Hinduism” under Muhammad bin Tughlaq to Muhammad Ali Jinnah dubbing Pakistan’s establishment “essential to prevent Hindu imperialism spreading into the Middle East” in the lead up to August 1947, Muslim rulers and leaders in the Indian subcontinent often established antagonism against the Hindus as an integral part of their governance and policy making.

The bile against Hinduism that Pakistani school curricula spew has been well documented and condemned by liberal quarters. “The foundation of Hindu set-up was based on injustice and cruelty” (Grade 6, Social Studies Book); this is one of the many gems from the books that our children are taught to further proliferate xenophobia inside their already jingoistic heads. However, the significance of hating Hindus for Pakistanis is a lot more than just biased historical narratives or pumping up bigotry under the garb of patriotism.

It is not being implied that Hindus do not – or have never – reciprocated these sentiments

It is very important to realise here that it’s not being implied that Hindus do not – or have never – reciprocated these sentiments. The stereotypical Hindu of ‘secular’ India manifests similar communal antagonism. And the nation might very well be on the verge of electing a communalist as their next prime minister in the shape of Narendra Modi. However, what needs to be understood and underscored here is that an Indian Hindu manifesting communal bigotry contradicts the ‘idea’ of India, while a Pakistani Muslim by doing so conforms to the ‘idea’ of Pakistan. Opposition to Hindus, and antagonism between Hindus and Muslims, form the founding principle of Pakistan.

Ideally the Islamo-fascist clamours of the 1940s, that became patriotic anthems of the movement for Pakistan, should have no relevance to events in modern day Pakistan. But how can you expect Hindu-Muslim harmony in a state that was created through fanning the embers of Hindu-Muslim disharmony? How can Pakistan expect the Hindus and Muslims inhabiting the country to evolve into one nation, after creating a state that owes itself to the principle that Hindus and Muslims of the Indian subcontinent are two different nations and cannot survive in unison?

The rather popular “Arabisation” of and obsession with our Islamic identity is the direct corollary of the Pakistan movement, since the Muslim inhabitants of this region were told that they had nothing in common with the Hindus of the region. This has obviously resulted in Pakistanis considering their country as a quasi-Arab land.

Refusing to acknowledge the commonalities between Hindus and Muslims of the Indian subcontinent is a part of the legacy of our founding fathers, and the reason why Pakistan was created in the first place. We might castigate the Pakistan Studies curricula all we want, but if anti-Hindu material is taken out of these books, the curriculum designers and the narrators of Pakistan’s version of Indo-Pak history would find it really hard to justify the creation of Pakistan.

tft-7-p-16-r

Jinnah might have told the Pakistani Hindus on August 11, 1947 that they are “free to go to their temples,” but as long as his separatist movement and the cult of Ghazvani and Tipu Sultan is extolled, the Pakistani Muslims would continue to feel equally “free” to torch these temples.

For Pakistan to achieve religious harmony and existential stability it would inevitably have to question its founding ideology. That’s the paradox staring the country in the face right now.

– See more at: http://www.thefridaytimes.com/tft/hatred-for-hindus/#sthash.bP8mAB3V.dpuf